How can I improve my performance as an athlete?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my performance in bed?
 

Erectile Dysfunctions

Disclaimer 
This is for educational purposes only. It’s healthy to know how you work. If you were having problems, please seek the direct consultation of a qualified, licensed physician. 

Erectile function 

A basic understanding of erectile function is a prerequisite to reviewing erectile function. For this, you must understand the phases of erectile function. 

Oversimplifying of course, you get an erection (or you don’t; or its poor angle prevents penetration); your erection persists (or it doesn’t); and you get a satisfactory ejaculation (or you don’t; the least of your concerns if you haven’t penetrated your partner in years because of injury or illness or just lack of use). 

Different men are trying to achieve different abilities with each of these three phases. So, as long as the physician and the patient work as a team, and as long as I get couples to expect less and enjoy more, well, I have found that I have never produced dissolution for anybody with care I have provided. 

Anyway, back to function. First phase, the formation of an erection, is based on cavernous sinuses of the penis filling with blood. Thus, first phase depends on inflow. The second phase of erection is persistence. Persistence depends on those veins that you see outside of the penis. The more those things are developed, in number, size, and amount in general, the more the tunica albuginea can distort them. The more the tunica albuginea can distort them, more persistent an erection. Thus, second phase depends on outflow. 

The distinction of inflow and outflow, of erection in contrast to persistence, and then in turn the important contrast of erection and ejaculation, are all important distinctions because things that help the two phases of erection may hurt ejaculation. Drugs for example that contribute to erection formation like Viagra actually can make ejaculation less satisfying at higher doses. Hence, everyone’s interest in lowering the doses of drugs in general... Side effects... Is here key. 

This brings up another point. Some people try to promote persistence of erections with drugs like Viagra. That is not a good strategy, as you now understand. Again, just to be clear, Viagra is good for you getting an erection. Not so good for maintaining an erection, and even working against you when it comes to producing satisfying ejaculation. 

Back to nervous system control of male sexual function, the parasympathetic system generally governs erection, the sympathetic nervous system governs ejaculation. P and S. Point and Shoot was the old pneumonic we always used to remember Parasympathetic and Sympathetic for erection and ejaculation, respectively. 


The spectrum of erectile dysfunction 

Even at a day to day level, normal males will experience fluctuations in erectile function that range from sub-par ability to frank dysfunction. Psychogenic and stress factors may also affect the nervous system’s control of erectile function thus also altering parasympathetic and sympathetic function. 

Heck, even eating affects erectile function. If your gut is full of blood digesting your food, less is going to get into your penis. There’s also dilution effect from a belly full of food on erection producing medications like Viagra. Most of these patients are aware of these limitations, and take such medicine on a more empty stomach to have the first phase of erection go better when they are in use. 

Psychogenic causes of erectile dysfunction are famous. Yes, even marriage causes erectile dysfunction according to some studies. But the first step... All organic illness must be entertained and aggressively ruled out. 

Yeah, the frank erectile dysfunction diseases and disorders. The causes of erectile dysfunction are worth keeping in mind, because every man that has had sexual difficulty may begin to wonder at some point or another, maybe this isn’t something normal. Or even psych. 

I think the mindful, intelligent, modern patient or the patient’s partner is really trying to ask, could my male partner have a “real” problem. This has many implications. Do they have a problem, or is this something I’m doing wrong; or the partner might entertain this possibility. If the “I’m doing something wrong“ is the issue, then that may need some attention. ASAP (any degree of her launch just use produces erectile dysfunction!). And these are all thoughts in a spectrum of healthy speculation, as long as expert physicians are kept involved, as long as care Is being attempted simultaneously to get function back to the junction while the work is underway, and the process remains a team effort designed to produce results - - and no one gets hung up on inner conflicts. But... 

If they indeed have a problem, then certainly the problem should be found and fixed. Could be a primary organic problem. Or it could be a secondary symptoms of another primary disorder that MUST be found (Instead of just masking that this order by treating the erectile dysfunction in and of itself). In other words, maybe erectile dysfunction is just a symptom something larger that should be addressed. Yes, one fairly important symptom. But a bigger problem needs to be fixed like diabetes or something. So, segue... And on to the problems that cause it. 

Yes, diabetes is a big cause. There are precursors to diabetes, pre-diabetic states if you will, including “metabolic syndrome” which is the number one cause of erectile dysfunction in this country. 

So if a physician is providing good care, all of the organic possibilities like diabetes and prediabetes including metabolic syndrome must be ruled out as care is entertained with exciting new treatments like shockwave therapy. And PRP. 

Another big cause of erectile dysfunction is something called Peyronie’s disease. It is a plaque or a pebble in the shaft of the penis. It causes the penis to tilt, making penetration complicated and difficult. 

That induration or plaque or pebble is scar tissue developing on the tunica albaginia. See below under question 4 for the significance of the tunica albaginia. 

So, pre-diabetes syndromes, including metabolic syndrome, and of course anatomic problems, including birth defects and Peyronie’s disease - - all leading causes of erectile dysfunction. 

Just about any other of the major chronic diseases can cause erectile dysfunction. 

Yer another entire class of dysfunction is vascular-genic dysfunction; 80% of all erectile dysfunction has a component of this in some estimates. That is, calcium deposits in the blood vessels can lead to vascular obstruction and reduced function. Hence, the response to medications like verapamil (see below). 

Radiation therapy destroys cells releasing platelet activating calcium, calcifying blood vessels harmfully as well. This produces erectile dysfunction quickly, and care should be started as early as possible in this setting for best treatment response. Many start the safest form of erectile dysfunction care, shockwave therapy (see below), right away in this setting knowing that such vasoactive erectile function is likely coming soon. 

Prostatectomy. An obvious cause of erectile dysfunction. 

Neurogenic lesions in the spine like in multiple sclerosis affect the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous function of erectile function (recall the “Point and Shoot” pneumonic, parasympathetic P governs Point, erection - - Sympathetic governs Shoot, ejaculation). 

Endocrine including low testosterone levels produces 10% Of the population of reduced function males. Hence, there’s not much to be gained by supplements. Plus the ever looming threat of suppressing your own body’s testosterone production by supplementing testosterone... Making testosterone supplements likely to produce yet another cause of erectile dysfunction when that notorious feedback loop goes awry. 

Pharmacologic destruction of erectile function, another obvious cause. NSAIDS are a big problem. Daily Advil or Aleve users or any of the cousins these drugs. Stop! It’s hurting your erectile function. 

Any of the CNS depressants... So, benzodiazepines, of course... But the depressant list goes on and on. SSRI’s (used for premature ejaculation and depression) and beta blockers can adversely affect erectile function (Although one interesting beta blocker, Bystolic, actually contributes to nitric oxide formation, improving erection formation - - so, a nice choice with a patient that wants to control blood pressure risks while improving erectile function.) 

And in the Venn diagram of things, there’s a great overlap amongst the different types of disorders that contribute to erectile dysfunction. 


Treatment 

In as much as the normal male can thus experience suboptimal erectile function, the normal male can strive to optimize erectile ability with different safe lifestyle practices and therapies. 

I like to think beyond hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which can be safe. There’s so, so much more! 

Lifestyle optimizations include maintaining a healthy weight, eating correctly, working out regularly, not participating in any regular substance abuse including alcohol, smoking, and marijuana. 

Penile injections, implants, pumps, PDI inhibitors - - all of these address erection formation. They produce little improvement in erection persistence. For that, we turn to anatomy boosting therapies, many of which do not even require drugs. 

Such therapies include shockwave, acoustic therapy (like GainsWave). The regimen involves a start up 6-12 sessions, followed by a yearly maintenance session. No drugs involved here. Just angiogenesis that is actually stimulated - - a revascularization of the veins of the shaft of the penis to maximize the persistence of erection. So much is written and spoken about returning function to the junction. Just regular sexual activity promotes lift off as well as persistence. And I am a big advocate of that. But what really is effective is getting the maximum anatomy back to the junction. That in turn leads in and of itself to ideal function in the junction today, and preserves it for decades of fullest function use. 

Since many causes of erectile disfunction stem from vasoactive dysfunction secondary to calcium deposition and secondary vascular dysfunction, calcium channel blockers like verapamil can work nicely. Atropine is another pharmacologic agent that can promote erection formation, thereby someone palliate erectile dysfunction. 

Continuing on the vascular campaign to remediate erectile dysfunction… One of the many procedures that help with vascular problems that wreck erectile dysfunction, clever surgery exists where a branch of the epigastric artery is brought down to the dorsal artery of the penis, allowing for better cavernous sinus filling, and hence improved erection formation. 

There are even ligaments that can be safely ligated, even in the B minus player, to prolong the penis, and thereby improve performance that way. 

For clinical situations where there is more extensive pathology to overcome, other surgery exists where a flexible filler rod is implanted into the cavernous sinuses. 9 out of 10 men get great satisfaction and response from this. 1 of 10 - - a very bad situation. Not only is it not effective in this unfortunate small group, but once the cavernous sinuses have been destroyed in this manner, sexual function may be very much adversely affected, to say the least. Bottom line, you need to know the risks. 


Conclusion 

There are many treatment options to shockwave for erectile dysfunction. 

Fixing the underlying problem like diabetes or metabolic disorder or anatomical disturbances or psychological problems is the most important first step in the treatment plan when there’s actual erectile dysfunction disease or disorder. 

Since a large portion of these pathological processes have a vasoactive underlying dysfunction, it stands to reason that vascular stabilizing medications like the calcium channel blocker‘s including forever no would help. And this is indeed the case. 

But living healthy is your best bet for maintaining optimal erectile function. 

Keeping sexually active is also key. 

And for therapies, avoid drugs, avoid surgeries... When you can, of course. The side effects are worth knowing and are in general strongly prohibitive. Move along... 

And strongly consider shockwave therapy - - super effective, and above all, safe. 

Stay good. And... Stay well. 

David Allingham, MD, MS

 
How can I lose weight?
 

Intermittent Fasting

Introduction

Intermittent fasting is reviewed for the athlete, obesity, and for general longevity in the rest of us alike.

 

Disclaimers

Do not self-administer or prescribe anything reviewed here based on these learning points. Leave this to doctors who have studied this extensively only please. Repeat, this is for educational purposes only.

 

Discussion

Alongside exercise and proper sleeping, it turns out that intermittent fasting is another spectacular, natural thing you can do for your health and to prolong longevity.

Since we evolved like all of the creatures to suffer periods of drought and famine, for us to be able to check in McDonald’s, Pizza, then Chipotle three times a day is completely unnatural.

Heck, we don’t even plant seeds anymore! So, overtime, our metabolism gets messed up in a way that’s a far departure from what it was supposed to be. Intermittent fasting isn’t just a means of caloric restriction. It is a means to resetting your metabolism BACK TO NORMAL.

So, if done properly, it should never be done for more than three months at a time... Like a good drought or famine. You see, it has to mimic a drought or famine. Things we don’t see anymore.

But I’m getting ahead of myself. So that’s why it should work: evolution is probably the best reason to justify anything that makes sense. But how does it work... Ah... Physiology In short, caloric restriction, if done correctly, up regulates stem cells in the GI tract!

The way this occurs at a molecular level is fairly straightforward. Caloric restriction leads to increased oxidative phosphorylation in the G.I. tract cells. This increases beta phosphorylation, so increases the metabolism of fatty acids, making fat the preferential substrate for the energy of those cells.

This not only leads to ketosis as we all know, it optimizes the NAD+/NADH ratio for ideal stem cell function. Optimal stem cell function in terms of ideal quiescence is correlated with optimal health and longevity.

Risks

Probably the biggest high risk group it really shouldn’t be doing intermittent fasting without the close observation of an expert position is a growing population group these days, the bipolar disorder patients, both types one and two.

See, bipolar patients are prone to manic cycling. If they get into a manic episode, you can throw their meds off, and lead to spinning function spirals of chaos and dysfunction. How does intermittent fasting make you manic? Ask anyone who’s ever done it. It leads to ketosis, and that leads to a massive amount of energy for up to a day or so.

That can lead to functional mania in most of us. But in the bipolar patient, it can lead to manic episodes that are usually bad in and of themselves. But it can throw the medicated or unmedicated patient into medication resistance.

Also, manic states can be followed by rebound situations that wind up in severe depression. Not good. Another big risk is doing intermittent fasting incorrectly. So, what are the correct ways of doing intermittent fasting.

The first and most important rule about intermittent fasting is that you should do it under the close guidance of a trained physician. The next most important rule, it is never done for more than 90 days. The pulse nature of this care must be emphasized.

One, it’s not safe to do it for long, no matter how much you fall in love with the ketotic manic highs, the weight loss, the improved athletic performance, the longevity you are buying into.

But two and most important, because it’s designed to mimic times of drought or famine in an organism’s life, and us a resetting of that organisms’ metabolism, it just won’t work if you do it continuously. It must be done; it must be stopped. The honeymoon’s off of it must be for at least a month. And often times for a year.

Again, let your physician decide. And never do a couple of 90 day passes back to back. Never. Dangerous, and it takes with the efficacy of this whole thing. On eating days by the way, breakfast is stressed. And on eating days, only eight hours of eating in general is considered healthy eating on an eating day.

These are general principles that must be followed by anyone who wants to do the best for their health, regardless of intermittent fasting. Please and thank you!

Intermittent Fasting Options

There are three main patterns of calorie restriction to choose from. Probably the least effective, but quite popular, and correct if done safely, is the “2-22” pattern of fasting. The most popular is fasting two days a week. It is more affective than 2-22, but not as effective as the least popular, but the most effective option - fasting five days a month. Yep!

Option #1

2-22 refers to two hours of eating following waking up, yes breakfast, followed by 22 hours of fasting. Fasting means only water and coffee and tea if you drink those. Again, it’s least effective in terms of how much weight you will lose, it’s least effective in terms of how little rebound there will be, like that. But it’s generally very effective. And a very healthy thing to do at least yearly even if you don’t want to just lose weight.

Option #2

More effective is a second option, fasting two days a week. Again, this will be for 90 days only. The two most studied days are Thursdays and Mondays. Water, tea or coffee if you drink these things are allowed. Nothing else on the two fasting days. This produces more effective weight loss, better athletic conditioning, better improvement in sleep cycles, a better reset of metabolism in general than 2-22. And, perhaps not so oddly, it is the most popular intermittent fasting option that has been scientifically proven to help your health and longevity.

Option #3

The most effective option for intermittent fasting is fasting five days out of 30, again, for only 90 days total. Again, only under the guidance of an MD. As absolutely intolerable as that sounds, it is possible, it is safe, and it is done with the best of results. What makes it more tolerable however is to use a diet that tricks the body into thinking it’s fasting for those five days.

A highly respected scientific company called Prolon sells such a multi-patented diet on Amazon. Doctors trained in the administration of intermittent fasting and that diet can sell you that for less $ in their practices usually.

Conclusion

Intermittent fasting is safe, it is for everyone as long as it is done under the guidance of a trained MD, as long as it is done in pulses, as long as you do it for no longer than 90 days while you are doing it ever. All humble opinions here for the purpose of learning.

Do not self administer intermittent fasting without the help of a trained physician. I think I’ve said that enough times!

Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I live longer?
 

Stem Cells - Umbilical Vs. Fat

Introduction

Up until now, you have had two big choices for the care of local problems or systemic diseases, drugs and surgery. You now have a new option, regenerative medicine. And, in brief, then includes stem cells for regenerating body tissues and peptides pour up regulating your body’s own growth hormone to cause growth of new tissue and healing. Here, I review stem cells.

The two most growing, popular sources, umbilical and fat extracted, are available to you today. However, nobody understands them. Not even your doctor. That is because they’re new, for one, and big Pharma and the federal government have little interest in you learning about them.

At this point, there are very few sources available to educate a nation, a world, about the rapid advances in what we know about stem cells. I here present a summary, a heads up overview, comparing these two major sources of stem cells.

 Disclaimers

This is solely for the purpose of education. I want to bring you up to speed in 2019. Umbilical donor and fat extracted cells. 

Discussion

There is much mudslinging between these two camps. I am a member of a relatively new, growing camp that wants to use everything available to us in a very customized per patient, yet collaborative between clinicians’ approach.

Clearly, umbilical has its strengths. Clearly, fat stem cells have their strengths. Clearly, the umbilical donor source has its disadvantages. Clearly, the fat extracted source has its disadvantages. And I’ll try to process this in a heads up fashion where possible.

For, every child and adult deserve to receive the benefit of these newly discovered healing cells. Extracted fat stem cells come from a limited reserve. They are limited in that there’s only so many cells in your body to extract.

Further, as we age, they diminish in number and function - although some fat reserves like the love handles, their usage has been so little over the decades that they maybe youthful and plentiful number. And if your stem cells are becoming less and less functional and plentiful as we age, perhaps we should leave them to the body’s purposes as we move into our elder years.

So, as we age, they’re probably a less and less attractive source. But, while you are young, they represent a great source especially if large amounts are required for a use demanding more for better care because there’s no likelihood challenge with higher doses.

Some terrific uses of stem cells do require larger doses. So, in a more is better world (MS, renal failure, pulmonary disorders like COPD, autism), where you want more cells, using your own cells to avoid immune risk at the large numbers of cells required to get a desirable response may be wise.

And perhaps (perhaps) aging stem cells, possibly designed more to pass on also inflammation signals so that nature can accomplish her plan to age us off the planet to make room for her young - perhaps this is yet another reason to avoid using stem cells in the elderly.

Umbilical stem cells in contrast come from an unlimited reserve, donor cells to be cloned ad infinitum. But even if there are no limits in availability of numbers, there are limits here in how many we can use. The downside fee we pay here may be risk of immune rejection from the excessive use in numbers per deployment or numbers of deployments.

As they are not autologous, but rather are allergenic, they are foreign to our body, so there are upper limits how many we can use without triggering immune risk. So, necessarily having to use smaller doses of umbilical source cells may be a factor.

But it will not be a restrictive factor if used non-systemically - knees, penises, tendons. If localized uses require less stem cells because there are only so many receptors for the stem cells to interact with in confined small areas... We may not have a problem.

If the stem cell deployed is a native stem cell as is the case in autologous, fat extracts, their interaction with our tissue cells is direct and surely reproduces what our body would do with its tissues’ own cells. But is the signaling the same for umbilical, allogenic foreign cells from a donor? Does the effect linger with autologous cells? Is there a signal shut down with foreign sourced cells?

So, does one source produce a stronger longer result? Does one produce more of a delayed result because it’s less familiar to the tissue? Time will tell no lies. But anecdotally there seem to be differences. Both share limits in care for two main groups of disorders. Neither extracted stem cells are used in partnering.

Conclusion

Both sources of adult mesenchymal cells are extremely safe, and the feds, in having cleared them, allows us to say this. Both sources work as patient funded investigation is showing. Both have their sweet spots. And although there is still more work, this is not another episode of Jurassic Park.

This is an exciting time to be alive if you’re looking to improve quality of living, treat illness without drugs, or prolong life.

  • Fat extracted: under 60 in general?
  • Systemic diseases that require more numbers for systemic IV deployment?
  • Umbilical: all ages especially over 60?
  • Systemic disease so IV deployment okay but.... Avoid large doses? And autoimmune diseases?

The ones with twitchy self-destructive antibodies - let’s not trigger cascades with too much of our fat extracted cells - and perhaps stick to umbilical? The autoimmune disorders with defenses twitchy to foreign antigens - let’s not use too much umbilical per treatment or over time? And certainly, avoid aged fat stem cell donors to youth hosts unless it’s a last result? And when our hands are really tied for stem cells, rally to...

Peptides to up regulate the body’s own growth hormone signaling locally or systemically for the healing and regeneration that allows? That’s another story!

Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I sleep better?
 

Light is a Nutrient

Introduction

Like edible nutrients, light is a nutrient we must be very serious about, albeit topical. There are bad types of light. There are good forms of light. There are bad quantities of different types of light, high, low. There are correct quantities of light. I will here summarize some of the more important aspects of light as a nutrient and make scientifically-based recommendations for your consideration.

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education.

Discussion

Light it turns out it is very much like a nutrient. And as we have discovered with the nutrients we ingest, that eating less doesn’t always make you thin, exposing yourself to less light isn’t always healthy.

And exposing yourself to excessive amounts of the wrong kind of light can be harmful. It all starts getting very complicated, so we are actively studying these things. But the great news is we can already make some suggestions that can improve your health. Light, like edible nutrients, affects your energy level, your sleep, and your metabolism.

Much like corn syrup is the junk of what we ingest, bright blue light it turns out is the junk of lighting. So, for starters, in case I lose you early, we need to block out some of the blue light in our day. The eyes are part of the brain, and that is where the blockage needs to occur.

Recommendations

Get yellow or orange sunglasses that block some but not all of the blue light for certain hours of the day. Make sure they are blocking no more than 60% of blue light. Blue blocking sunglasses increase your energy during the day. Use for under three hours.

Blue blocking sunglasses reduce insomnia when used at night. Used for one hour at night. Blue blocking sunglasses reduce eye stress. Blue blocking sunglasses minimize the formation of migraines during a stressful day - - the kind of day most of us have. Here are some of the other conclusions we can make at this time.

Satiety

If blocking blue light is helping your energy level, and helping your sleep, and helping your metabolism, then, you guessed it, it’s going to help you not feel hungry. I can attest to this directly.

I started blocking blue light about a month ago when I first heard about it harms. And, I would advise the lifestyle I occasionally follow because I’m so busy, but I regularly skip meals. That regularly leaves me hungry, and the biggest effect of this that I experience is aching muscles.

Long story short, I started blocking blue light, and realized that I wasn’t experiencing any muscle pain just having skipped breakfast and lunch one day. Seriously fascinating. It curbed the aches and pains of fasting. And when I realize this, I became tuned into another fact. It curbed satiety. I wasn’t even hungry.

Consistent with this, it has been proven that increased exposure to blue light makes you hungry. Bam. Do you want to block out blue light now? I can hear what you’re saying. You want to black it out altogether.

Don’t get carried away. But Don’t Go Overboard! Before you turn off or at least reduce much of your blue light exposure, don’t you want to know why this is probably the case. You should. And sure enough, it’s evolutionarily.

Evolution explains pretty much most things. Sure enough, it also explains why excessive blue light is bad. We evolved in the ocean. And these cell like organelles called mitochondria developed inside of us or came in to join us... And as part of our symbiotic relationship, we were forced to keep them happy as they helped us generate energy using electron transfer (another story).

So, our ancient one celled, bacterial ancestor, in conjunction with our light sensitive mitochondria, float to the surface of the ocean because it’s warmer there during the day - - where they received full spectrum sunlight. Blue, red, infrared, the entire rainbow. Then, nighttime would come, and it would get colder.

So, we (the bacteria) dropped deeper because we weren’t so drawn to the surface. There, our light dependent mitochondria would get less red and infrared in the depths of the ocean, allowing them and us to enter a more dormant state. This was our natural cycle.

So, if we expose ourselves to blue light excesses at night, we are disrupting the cycle. This makes us become less inclined to be dormant at night. Insomnia follows. If we expose ourselves to blue light excesses during the day without a correspondingly matching amount of infrared, it takes away our energy during the day.

Blue light excesses at night, bad. Blue light excesses during the day (without corresponding infrared amounts), bad. During the day, blue light excesses with insufficient infrared leads to lethargy. Blue light excesses at night (note: infrared not part of this nighttime equation) leads to unwanted mitochondrial activation, so unwanted energy, and insomnia.

Benefits of blue light

Blue light certainly isn’t all bad. In babies, the conjugation of bilirubin from an excessive amount of blood is necessary to excrete toxic bilirubin. Well, blue light encourages this waste product formation avoiding jaundice and thus brain damage in the newborn. Also, there is a critical amount of blue light required to get the wake up signal into the correct part your brain in the morning. The proper amount of blue light helps you regulate your blood sugar.

Morbidities

There is a 40% increased incidence in breast cancer associated with the wrong types of light exposure. And... Sunlight does not cause this. Increased risk of stroke before you’re 30. Now there’s a motivator to block out blue light.

Conclusion

We are getting way too much blue light without enough infrared or red light along with it. So, the big take-home is to block out blue light throughout the day to increase your energy level - but not too much or you can get insomnia. And block out blue light for about an hour at night, and no more, to improve quality of sleep.

Blue light, bad. Brightness, bad, in general. So, bright blue light has been called the corn syrup of lighting. So, reduce the amount of blue light you get from office lighting, lighting at home, but especially your computer screen, the TV, and your mobile devices. And sunshine isn’t always up to no good.

You definitely need at least some regularly. But remember, bad doesn’t mean have none of it. And good doesn’t mean have excesses of it. Same goes for blue light.

 

 
How can I get better looking?
 

Regenerative Medicine For Aging Skin

Introduction

Current regenerative therapies available for skin aging are reviewed.
 
After all, with so many advances in medicine, if our skin is aging faster than we are, then we have got to give it a hand.

 

Disclaimers

The following is heavily based on a review of the current medical literature. Minimizing opinion, passion does present itself here and there briefly.

 

Discussion

What can you do for your aging skin instead of lasers and extensive surgery?
 
First a couple of important principles.
 
  • Keratinocyte stem cells in the skin that make keratin that strengthens work best the younger they are
 
  • Mesenchymal stem cells = adult stem cells that can move to the skin turn into fibroblasts that make collagen
 
  • (accent on ‘adult’ stem cells; this is not a discussion of embryonic stem cells, please bear that in mind)
 
  • Mesenchymal adult stem cells help all other cells in the skin to stay young
 
  • And keratinocytes and fibroblasts are responsible for keratin, elastin and collagen, key to maintaining skin youth, especially collagen 3
 
Our stem cells, circulating in most tissues, age and diminish as we age. So if our skin is aging, and our stem cells responsible for generating new hair and skin are aging, seems like we are in a bit of a bind.
 
Fortunately, the reason our bodies respond less and less to our own stem cells and our own growth factors is not as much because our tissues are becoming unresponsive, but more so because our stem cells are becoming less in number and less effective. Our circulating stem cells are aging perhaps faster than we are aging.
 
Even more fortunately, it turns out that our bodies will respond to outer sources of stem cells quite favorably, be they autologous (our own cells) or allogenic (the cells of another member of our species). Even xenographic sources like from snail can lead to promising results, too.
 
So, although we can’t really supplement skin too easily... We can sure supplement stem cells and stem cell factors and growth factors.
 
Luminosity, depth, evenness, lightening, brightening, elasticity, even this thing called beautiful. We all want these in our skin. So as we dive into skin and the concepts involved in it’s aging, let’s start with, the skin organ itself. Sorry, the science part. I’m going to keep it simple, but I’m going to give you what doctors know, because you are entitled to this.
 
Skin: 2 components, dermis and epidermis. Dermis, one of the big niche areas of stem cell existence in the body no doubt because of the increased turnover there like in the gut, provides stem cells and growth factors and stem cell factors for the epidermis which claws into the dermis in the appearance of a bear claw histologically (the appearance of tissues under the microscope) in younger skin. This bear claw reaching in anatomy is lost in older skin allowing these two sheets of tissue, epidermis over dermis, to just slide over each other because they are flat on flat. Leading to increased sagging, increased sloughing, and increased bruising because the dermis carries blood, we get aged looking and behaving skin.
 
The particular area of the dermis that contains the most stem cells is the base of the hair follicles, a famous niche area of stem cell preponderance in the body – that is until we start aging. Specifically, it’s the dermal papillae cells at the base of the hair follicle that is the most important to skin and hair maintenance if not regeneration.
 
So, what if supplementing stem cells locally could lead to stem cells getting directly to these areas automatically. And what if when they get there they could automatically tell that area what to do, even though they were from outside sources.
 
They can. And they do. Stem cells get there automatically. And... They can tell the area what to do automatically once they get there, even though they are outsiders. These computer-like cells, the adult stem cells, are not rejected even as outsiders because they are immuno privileged. This confuses a lot of people. But, this much has been studied well. And they are so immuno privileged, there is some research and ongoing use of them in host rejection diseases (kidney transplants, like that).
 
So, we can get mesenchymal adult stem cells from outside donors, specifically umbilical cord structures. And we can get adult mesenchymal stem cells from our own fat. We have the technology to easily and safely extract them our own marrow and fat and deploy them so we can provide our skin such stem cells today. “We have the talent, we have the tools.“ We have the technology. But it requires a little training (OK, so it is a bit of a laborious surgical process, and it must be done in a closed system, meaning we must keep all of this free of infection, but such care is readily available).
 
So, if supplementary stem cells containing the potential for regeneration and supplementary growth factors from any number of sources help the stem cells work on the skin, then supplementing these should reduce the incidence of if not treat sagging, sloughing, and skin aging in general. Skin creams that contain Xenograft versions of these like snails cells providing stem cells and snail secretions providing growth factors, work well. But deployment in much larger amounts from umbilical stem cell distributors and fat extraction of your own stem cells from your love handles delivered by IV as well as locally help the skin much more so. Think rocket fuel instead of premium gas.
 
Skin creams get the growth factors and stem cell factors from snail secretions. Skin creams get their stem cells from snail eggs. Not sure what the snail cell counts are. But, you can get healthy, safe human mesenchymal stem cells from FDA approved distributors of umbilical sources in the 1-60 million range. And here’s the best news... You can get your own stem cells from your own fat (with the help of a stem cell surgeon trained in mini-liposuction) in the hundreds of millions.
 
That’s the cellular part of it. For the human growth factors, we use platelet rich plasma (PRP) easily and safely extracted from your own blood as our greatest source of growth factors. After all, platelets are a little sacks without nuclei containing all the growth factors necessary to help fix tissue. It stands to reason that the stem cells we supplement will need plenty of PRP around to allow the stem cells to do the most they can for us. When it comes to skin at least, stem cells need PRP, PRP needs stem cells.
 
So in summary, or if I didn’t make it clear, the follicle papillae cells for hair and fibroblasts and keratinocytes for skin work best under the guidance of plenty of stem cells. And supplementing stem cell numbers (especially if you are aging and don’t have enough) is effective therapy. Stem cells can get to those areas automatically if deployed locally, and produce instructions to those areas and cells automatically. Platelets in PRP contain growth factors that help stem cells function and help follicle papillae cells, keratinocytes, and fibroblasts function. But the platelets in PRP don’t get to these areas automatically unless there are plenty of stem cells to guide them in.
 
The final result from the stem cells and these growth factors, regardless of the source, human or snail, is what we need. Plenty of elastin. Plenty of collagen, type III collagen being the most common type in the skin.
 

Conclusion

Adult stem cells are critical to regenerate keratinocytes and fibroblasts. These younger keratinocytes and fibroblasts AND stem cells will work better with plenty of growth factors and plenty of stem cell factors.
 
  • Growth factors repair and protect, so are considered the extrinsic agent in this formula for skin improvement
  • Stem cells are the intrinsic agent, so they replenish and restore
 
So, once again the recurring theme of combination therapy seen in so much of the body reshaping, recontouring, reforming, modalities being used today from body sculpting to tissue regeneration... When you’re talking about skin care... Stem cells (human adult mesenchymal stem cells from your fat or someone else’s umbilical blood versus snail eggs in topical preparations) must team up with growth factors (PRP providing platelets, little sacks filled with growth factors, if you want to be the source, snail secretions if you’re considering skin creams). Both types of sources are spectacular care and recommended by great physicians. For...
 
As skin ages, it not only loses thickness, it loses the corrugated interface it has between the dermis and the epidermis. Sloughing, sagging, easy bruising follows.
 
This is just what the body does. And I for one have grown to respect that.
 
As such... This is not a world of wound healing. Aging isn’t a wound anyway. It’s a blessing.
 
And this isn’t a world of disease curing. Aging isn’t a disease anyway. And stem cells and growth factors and stem cell factors do not make aging stop. They only make new tissue start. And they prevent old tissue from getting into trouble.
 
This is a world of tissue and organ regeneration. We know for fact that if adults mesenchymal stem cells are used, it’s completely safe. And the FDA has cleared us to say this. So we all must learn about it together. These are our tissues. Let’s learn about ourselves... Our property… Our adult stem cells... Treating ourselves. Let’s not let anybody take them away as we do.
 
Stay well,
David Allingham, MD, MS

 
How can I perform better sexually?
 

Erectile Dysfunctions

Disclaimer 
This is for educational purposes only. It’s healthy to know how you work. If you were having problems, please seek the direct consultation of a qualified, licensed physician. 

Erectile function 

A basic understanding of erectile function is a prerequisite to reviewing erectile function. For this, you must understand the phases of erectile function. 

Oversimplifying of course, you get an erection (or you don’t; or its poor angle prevents penetration); your erection persists (or it doesn’t); and you get a satisfactory ejaculation (or you don’t; the least of your concerns if you haven’t penetrated your partner in years because of injury or illness or just lack of use). 

Different men are trying to achieve different abilities with each of these three phases. So, as long as the physician and the patient work as a team, and as long as I get couples to expect less and enjoy more, well, I have found that I have never produced dissolution for anybody with care I have provided. 

Anyway, back to function. First phase, the formation of an erection, is based on cavernous sinuses of the penis filling with blood. Thus, first phase depends on inflow. The second phase of erection is persistence. Persistence depends on those veins that you see outside of the penis. The more those things are developed, in number, size, and amount in general, the more the tunica albuginea can distort them. The more the tunica albuginea can distort them, more persistent an erection. Thus, second phase depends on outflow. 

The distinction of inflow and outflow, of erection in contrast to persistence, and then in turn the important contrast of erection and ejaculation, are all important distinctions because things that help the two phases of erection may hurt ejaculation. Drugs for example that contribute to erection formation like Viagra actually can make ejaculation less satisfying at higher doses. Hence, everyone’s interest in lowering the doses of drugs in general... Side effects... Is here key. 

This brings up another point. Some people try to promote persistence of erections with drugs like Viagra. That is not a good strategy, as you now understand. Again, just to be clear, Viagra is good for you getting an erection. Not so good for maintaining an erection, and even working against you when it comes to producing satisfying ejaculation. 

Back to nervous system control of male sexual function, the parasympathetic system generally governs erection, the sympathetic nervous system governs ejaculation. P and S. Point and Shoot was the old pneumonic we always used to remember Parasympathetic and Sympathetic for erection and ejaculation, respectively. 


The spectrum of erectile dysfunction 

Even at a day to day level, normal males will experience fluctuations in erectile function that range from sub-par ability to frank dysfunction. Psychogenic and stress factors may also affect the nervous system’s control of erectile function thus also altering parasympathetic and sympathetic function. 

Heck, even eating affects erectile function. If your gut is full of blood digesting your food, less is going to get into your penis. There’s also dilution effect from a belly full of food on erection producing medications like Viagra. Most of these patients are aware of these limitations, and take such medicine on a more empty stomach to have the first phase of erection go better when they are in use. 

Psychogenic causes of erectile dysfunction are famous. Yes, even marriage causes erectile dysfunction according to some studies. But the first step... All organic illness must be entertained and aggressively ruled out. 

Yeah, the frank erectile dysfunction diseases and disorders. The causes of erectile dysfunction are worth keeping in mind, because every man that has had sexual difficulty may begin to wonder at some point or another, maybe this isn’t something normal. Or even psych. 

I think the mindful, intelligent, modern patient or the patient’s partner is really trying to ask, could my male partner have a “real” problem. This has many implications. Do they have a problem, or is this something I’m doing wrong; or the partner might entertain this possibility. If the “I’m doing something wrong“ is the issue, then that may need some attention. ASAP (any degree of her launch just use produces erectile dysfunction!). And these are all thoughts in a spectrum of healthy speculation, as long as expert physicians are kept involved, as long as care Is being attempted simultaneously to get function back to the junction while the work is underway, and the process remains a team effort designed to produce results - - and no one gets hung up on inner conflicts. But... 

If they indeed have a problem, then certainly the problem should be found and fixed. Could be a primary organic problem. Or it could be a secondary symptoms of another primary disorder that MUST be found (Instead of just masking that this order by treating the erectile dysfunction in and of itself). In other words, maybe erectile dysfunction is just a symptom something larger that should be addressed. Yes, one fairly important symptom. But a bigger problem needs to be fixed like diabetes or something. So, segue... And on to the problems that cause it. 

Yes, diabetes is a big cause. There are precursors to diabetes, pre-diabetic states if you will, including “metabolic syndrome” which is the number one cause of erectile dysfunction in this country. 

So if a physician is providing good care, all of the organic possibilities like diabetes and prediabetes including metabolic syndrome must be ruled out as care is entertained with exciting new treatments like shockwave therapy. And PRP. 

Another big cause of erectile dysfunction is something called Peyronie’s disease. It is a plaque or a pebble in the shaft of the penis. It causes the penis to tilt, making penetration complicated and difficult. 

That induration or plaque or pebble is scar tissue developing on the tunica albaginia. See below under question 4 for the significance of the tunica albaginia. 

So, pre-diabetes syndromes, including metabolic syndrome, and of course anatomic problems, including birth defects and Peyronie’s disease - - all leading causes of erectile dysfunction. 

Just about any other of the major chronic diseases can cause erectile dysfunction. 

Yer another entire class of dysfunction is vascular-genic dysfunction; 80% of all erectile dysfunction has a component of this in some estimates. That is, calcium deposits in the blood vessels can lead to vascular obstruction and reduced function. Hence, the response to medications like verapamil (see below). 

Radiation therapy destroys cells releasing platelet activating calcium, calcifying blood vessels harmfully as well. This produces erectile dysfunction quickly, and care should be started as early as possible in this setting for best treatment response. Many start the safest form of erectile dysfunction care, shockwave therapy (see below), right away in this setting knowing that such vasoactive erectile function is likely coming soon. 

Prostatectomy. An obvious cause of erectile dysfunction. 

Neurogenic lesions in the spine like in multiple sclerosis affect the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous function of erectile function (recall the “Point and Shoot” pneumonic, parasympathetic P governs Point, erection - - Sympathetic governs Shoot, ejaculation). 

Endocrine including low testosterone levels produces 10% Of the population of reduced function males. Hence, there’s not much to be gained by supplements. Plus the ever looming threat of suppressing your own body’s testosterone production by supplementing testosterone... Making testosterone supplements likely to produce yet another cause of erectile dysfunction when that notorious feedback loop goes awry. 

Pharmacologic destruction of erectile function, another obvious cause. NSAIDS are a big problem. Daily Advil or Aleve users or any of the cousins these drugs. Stop! It’s hurting your erectile function. 

Any of the CNS depressants... So, benzodiazepines, of course... But the depressant list goes on and on. SSRI’s (used for premature ejaculation and depression) and beta blockers can adversely affect erectile function (Although one interesting beta blocker, Bystolic, actually contributes to nitric oxide formation, improving erection formation - - so, a nice choice with a patient that wants to control blood pressure risks while improving erectile function.) 

And in the Venn diagram of things, there’s a great overlap amongst the different types of disorders that contribute to erectile dysfunction. 


Treatment 

In as much as the normal male can thus experience suboptimal erectile function, the normal male can strive to optimize erectile ability with different safe lifestyle practices and therapies. 

I like to think beyond hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which can be safe. There’s so, so much more! 

Lifestyle optimizations include maintaining a healthy weight, eating correctly, working out regularly, not participating in any regular substance abuse including alcohol, smoking, and marijuana. 

Penile injections, implants, pumps, PDI inhibitors - - all of these address erection formation. They produce little improvement in erection persistence. For that, we turn to anatomy boosting therapies, many of which do not even require drugs. 

Such therapies include shockwave, acoustic therapy (like GainsWave). The regimen involves a start up 6-12 sessions, followed by a yearly maintenance session. No drugs involved here. Just angiogenesis that is actually stimulated - - a revascularization of the veins of the shaft of the penis to maximize the persistence of erection. So much is written and spoken about returning function to the junction. Just regular sexual activity promotes lift off as well as persistence. And I am a big advocate of that. But what really is effective is getting the maximum anatomy back to the junction. That in turn leads in and of itself to ideal function in the junction today, and preserves it for decades of fullest function use. 

Since many causes of erectile disfunction stem from vasoactive dysfunction secondary to calcium deposition and secondary vascular dysfunction, calcium channel blockers like verapamil can work nicely. Atropine is another pharmacologic agent that can promote erection formation, thereby someone palliate erectile dysfunction. 

Continuing on the vascular campaign to remediate erectile dysfunction… One of the many procedures that help with vascular problems that wreck erectile dysfunction, clever surgery exists where a branch of the epigastric artery is brought down to the dorsal artery of the penis, allowing for better cavernous sinus filling, and hence improved erection formation. 

There are even ligaments that can be safely ligated, even in the B minus player, to prolong the penis, and thereby improve performance that way. 

For clinical situations where there is more extensive pathology to overcome, other surgery exists where a flexible filler rod is implanted into the cavernous sinuses. 9 out of 10 men get great satisfaction and response from this. 1 of 10 - - a very bad situation. Not only is it not effective in this unfortunate small group, but once the cavernous sinuses have been destroyed in this manner, sexual function may be very much adversely affected, to say the least. Bottom line, you need to know the risks. 


Conclusion 

There are many treatment options to shockwave for erectile dysfunction. 

Fixing the underlying problem like diabetes or metabolic disorder or anatomical disturbances or psychological problems is the most important first step in the treatment plan when there’s actual erectile dysfunction disease or disorder. 

Since a large portion of these pathological processes have a vasoactive underlying dysfunction, it stands to reason that vascular stabilizing medications like the calcium channel blocker‘s including forever no would help. And this is indeed the case. 

But living healthy is your best bet for maintaining optimal erectile function. 

Keeping sexually active is also key. 

And for therapies, avoid drugs, avoid surgeries... When you can, of course. The side effects are worth knowing and are in general strongly prohibitive. Move along... 

And strongly consider shockwave therapy - - super effective, and above all, safe. 

Stay good. And... Stay well. 

David Allingham, MD, MS

 
How can I perform better athletically?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my coordination?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my speed?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my endurance?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my timing?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my stamina?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my reflexes?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my strength?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my mobility?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my dizziness?
 

Stem Cells - Umbilical Vs. Fat

Introduction

Up until now, you have had two big choices for the care of local problems or systemic diseases, drugs and surgery. You now have a new option, regenerative medicine. And, in brief, then includes stem cells for regenerating body tissues and peptides pour up regulating your body’s own growth hormone to cause growth of new tissue and healing. Here, I review stem cells.

The two most growing, popular sources, umbilical and fat extracted, are available to you today. However, nobody understands them. Not even your doctor. That is because they’re new, for one, and big Pharma and the federal government have little interest in you learning about them.

At this point, there are very few sources available to educate a nation, a world, about the rapid advances in what we know about stem cells. I here present a summary, a heads up overview, comparing these two major sources of stem cells.

 Disclaimers

This is solely for the purpose of education. I want to bring you up to speed in 2019. Umbilical donor and fat extracted cells. 

Discussion

There is much mudslinging between these two camps. I am a member of a relatively new, growing camp that wants to use everything available to us in a very customized per patient, yet collaborative between clinicians’ approach.

Clearly, umbilical has its strengths. Clearly, fat stem cells have their strengths. Clearly, the umbilical donor source has its disadvantages. Clearly, the fat extracted source has its disadvantages. And I’ll try to process this in a heads up fashion where possible.

For, every child and adult deserve to receive the benefit of these newly discovered healing cells. Extracted fat stem cells come from a limited reserve. They are limited in that there’s only so many cells in your body to extract.

Further, as we age, they diminish in number and function - although some fat reserves like the love handles, their usage has been so little over the decades that they maybe youthful and plentiful number. And if your stem cells are becoming less and less functional and plentiful as we age, perhaps we should leave them to the body’s purposes as we move into our elder years.

So, as we age, they’re probably a less and less attractive source. But, while you are young, they represent a great source especially if large amounts are required for a use demanding more for better care because there’s no likelihood challenge with higher doses.

Some terrific uses of stem cells do require larger doses. So, in a more is better world (MS, renal failure, pulmonary disorders like COPD, autism), where you want more cells, using your own cells to avoid immune risk at the large numbers of cells required to get a desirable response may be wise.

And perhaps (perhaps) aging stem cells, possibly designed more to pass on also inflammation signals so that nature can accomplish her plan to age us off the planet to make room for her young - perhaps this is yet another reason to avoid using stem cells in the elderly.

Umbilical stem cells in contrast come from an unlimited reserve, donor cells to be cloned ad infinitum. But even if there are no limits in availability of numbers, there are limits here in how many we can use. The downside fee we pay here may be risk of immune rejection from the excessive use in numbers per deployment or numbers of deployments.

As they are not autologous, but rather are allergenic, they are foreign to our body, so there are upper limits how many we can use without triggering immune risk. So, necessarily having to use smaller doses of umbilical source cells may be a factor.

But it will not be a restrictive factor if used non-systemically - knees, penises, tendons. If localized uses require less stem cells because there are only so many receptors for the stem cells to interact with in confined small areas... We may not have a problem.

If the stem cell deployed is a native stem cell as is the case in autologous, fat extracts, their interaction with our tissue cells is direct and surely reproduces what our body would do with its tissues’ own cells. But is the signaling the same for umbilical, allogenic foreign cells from a donor? Does the effect linger with autologous cells? Is there a signal shut down with foreign sourced cells?

So, does one source produce a stronger longer result? Does one produce more of a delayed result because it’s less familiar to the tissue? Time will tell no lies. But anecdotally there seem to be differences. Both share limits in care for two main groups of disorders. Neither extracted stem cells are used in partnering.

Conclusion

Both sources of adult mesenchymal cells are extremely safe, and the feds, in having cleared them, allows us to say this. Both sources work as patient funded investigation is showing. Both have their sweet spots. And although there is still more work, this is not another episode of Jurassic Park.

This is an exciting time to be alive if you’re looking to improve quality of living, treat illness without drugs, or prolong life.

  • Fat extracted: under 60 in general?
  • Systemic diseases that require more numbers for systemic IV deployment?
  • Umbilical: all ages especially over 60?
  • Systemic disease so IV deployment okay but.... Avoid large doses? And autoimmune diseases?

The ones with twitchy self-destructive antibodies - let’s not trigger cascades with too much of our fat extracted cells - and perhaps stick to umbilical? The autoimmune disorders with defenses twitchy to foreign antigens - let’s not use too much umbilical per treatment or over time? And certainly, avoid aged fat stem cell donors to youth hosts unless it’s a last result? And when our hands are really tied for stem cells, rally to...

Peptides to up regulate the body’s own growth hormone signaling locally or systemically for the healing and regeneration that allows? That’s another story!

Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve my pain?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my hair?
 

PRP: A Source of Growth Factors for Rejuvenation and Restoration

Introduction

Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is rapidly rising as a source of growth factors to help in many clinical situations. Only an absolute basic few principles are reviewed here.

 

Disclaimers

The big disclaimer in this walk through of PRP today is that it is ultra-minimal. There are distributors and scientific reviews that are much more comprehensive than this. But this should give you a good overview to start out on understanding a safe treatment option available to you instead of so many dangerous surgeries and dirty medicines for so many things.

 

Discussion

PRP, platelet rich plasma from you, contains platelets. Platelets are little sacks of growth factors, similar to cells, but contain no nuclear material - - no nuclei at all.

So, if there is no nucleus in a platelet, it contains all of these growth factors, but doesn’t know exactly what to do with them. The platelet instinctively goes to areas of inflammation and wounds to help heal wounds and resolve inflammation. But it must get instructions there.

Cells that are healthy locally can give it instructions. The wound has ailing cells that can give it instructions. And stem cells are probably the best “computers” in the body that can give platelets instructions. So, I guess that’s one of the big take-home’s: PRP works best if there is an abundance of high-quality stem cells nearby.

Conversely, PRP doesn’t work well if there’s not many stem cells. One situation in which there are not many stem cells is aging. As we age, our stem cell numbers and quality decreases.

So, the extrapolation is, you guessed it: PRP does not work well in the elderly. So, if an elderly person is considering PRP for its many indications, many of which are reviewed below (and I know that’s why you’re probably reading this) (so, we’re almost there!), then that elderly person might higher prioritize getting some stem cells on board first.

Another situation where PRP won’t work by itself no matter how many times you try it (John Wall) is in the joint, which is highly nonvascular, so often times doesn’t contain many stem cells.

Such an athlete might consider getting stem cells first which will last in their body 30 months including deployments directly into a knee… And then administer some PRP if you want.

But many scientific journals are pointing to the fact that all things like knees need is stem cells alone without the PRP. But that’s another subject. So, I’ll repeat this first big principal and all its repercussions: PRP requires stem cells to work. PRP will work better in young people than elderly. PRP will work better in people who have received stem cells recently. PRP will work better in people who receive stem cells concurrently, although many argue that the stem cells alone would suffice in that setting. PRP won’t work in avascular areas where there are not many stem cells like joints. PRP is obtained using PRP kits provided by many distributors in the US and Canada. PRP is extracted from venous blood - - just a regular blood draw folks.

So, when we talk about giving you PRP, we are giving you back platelets we pulled out of you, same day, usually same hour. Different PRP kits very in quality, and I’m not saying it isn’t always high-quality and safe. It pretty much is. PRP kits vary in how much white cells that they contain as if it was a strength, and I’m not saying that it always isn’t. And PRP varies in platelet concentration. And PRP kits vary in terms of whether they are activated or not. A source of some confusion to the novice, PRP also varies in activated versus non-activated.

This is a much more important distinction you must understand - - and it’s easy. Activated PRP (activated for their prime function to help a damaged area of tissue) means that the platelets have been exposed to calcium salts such as in an active wound where cells are exploding and dumping out calcium salts.

If platelets are exposed to calcium, they start working, and quickly - - they start getting sticky, leading to the formation of a fibrin clot – and that’s what a wound needs. The other thing that happens when the platelet starts getting sticky and Jell-O like instead of free-flowing is that they stay around.

That is, they don’t migrate off. So, activation when it comes to PRP means formation of fiber matrix. So, some people would rather not worry about that fiber matrix with the PRP they are using. And they use other scaffolding or matrix sources, some of them allogenic, a term that literally means from a non-homologous source, i.e., from someone else.

Some clinical situations have enough inflammation and activity from cell death that the platelets will be activated when they get into the body part. In those situations, they don’t need to be activated. The body will activate them. What do you like it or not, that activated PRP will stick around in that area?

In other clinical situations, there is no cell break down, and you want the PRP to stick around. So, you have to activate that PRP before administering it. Usually exposing it to a calcium salt like calcium chloride or cost include gluconate activates the PRP.

The PRP is deployed; the PRP sticks around that area. And yet other clinical situations, there is no cell break down and you DON’T want the PRP to stick around locally. You were interested it and it is defusing a little further away.

Growth factors to encourage hair regeneration require this. So, two more big principles.

  1. PRP should be activated to keep locally (not for hair) (not for the P shot) (not for the O shot). In all of the situations, you don’t want to keep the PRP local. You want it to spread to the surrounding tissues.
  2. If there is inflammation, you will want the PRP to stick around. But the bar is inflammation will activate the PRP, so it doesn’t need to be activated.

Whether or not to activate the PRP that’s about to be used as important because as soon as you activated before deployment, you have a ticking clock. The stuff thickens very quickly, and it makes it harder and harder to administer by the minute after activation has been done outside the body in those situations that require it. And there is another distinguishing feature of PRP types.

You can have a high density concentration, or you can have a low density concentration of platelets. Depending on how the PRP is mixed. Not all that significant as far as I can tell.

After all, when you get your blood drawn for your PRP, your quantity of platelets is going to vary day to day depending on so many factors. Luck of the draw really. Ha. Pun intended. Indications for PRP Joints, Tendons, Ligaments Hair, Skin problems Sexual function, so for the Penis it’s the P shot. The O shot in women Inflamed joints, arthritis, the situations benefit from PRP. But many argue that when it comes to joints, all you really need is stem cells. I’m going defer discussion on this.

Hair

You might think with no inflammation or active wound; we might want to activate the PRP before deployment. But, no. The PRP should not be activated and that’s so it can spread around. It will activate in the body soon enough.

The deployment is extremely superficial, just a couple of millimeters. And it’s leading to great things. Again, stem cells will be required for the PRP to help a man or woman regenerate hair or prevent hair loss.

So, strongly consider investing in stem cells first, then PRP second if you are trying to regenerate tissue is the alopecia arena. The P shot with PRP, done in conjunction with shockwave therapy, is dramatically helping erectile dysfunction, as well as Peyronie’s disease and other rarer indications.

The P shot, which is actually several shots along the shaft and glans of the penis, in conjunction with an increase vascularity treated with shockwave therapy, is leading to maximizing penile function not only severely impaired men, but even in fairly normal men. The results have been spectacular. We are just beginning to see the safe care effects in this strong indication for PRP.

The “O” shot with PRP, which is actually two shots, one to the Skinners gland, and one elsewhere (different discussion on that) is helping with dyspareunia and lichen sclerosis, two serious conditions which affect women’s sexual health. But it is also helping much more healthy women increase general pubis color (consistent with increasing blood vessels there), thus leading to increased sensitivity during intercourse.

So... Exciting advances in both of these arenas, in the highly unfortunate clinically ill, as well as the nearly healthy trying to optimize or improve an already fairly healthy sexual system. PRP is truly helping a lot of couples.

 

Conclusion

So, we begin to see a general principle that recurs again and again in all considerations of regenerative medicine. It is that you need growth factors from things like PRP, and you need guiding computer-like agents - - things like stem cells, and you need a matrix or scaffolding on which regeneration (some still call it healing, but that’s probably not entirely correct) can occur.

PRP, so rich in platelets required for the traditional clotting of wounds, is going to be filled with growth factors. That’s really all they bring to the table. Pretty simple.

And if you want your PRP growth factors to remain in the area of the deployment sustained for days instead of hours, you think of activating the PRP before deployment.

If you in contrast prefer that the PRP defuse to the surrounding tissues for your particular application like hair maintenance and regeneration, you avoid pre-activation, so as to allow PRP to diffuse, and then the fiber matrix is created by the body later when it activates the PRP in a slower fashion allowing spread to more remote areas from the site of deployment.

 
How can I improve my skin?
 

Cryo Lipolysis

Introduction

The most salient principles and pearls of lipolysis by the transfer of cold energy, one of the many body sculpting modalities currently available, are reviewed here.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purposes of learning. Please stick to the recommendations of a licensed physician for all body sculpting therapy.

 

Discussion

I know, it’s commonly known that the process of burning fat is called lipolysis.

But did you know that with the best cold therapy techniques or lemonade in fact, there are always a component of heat. Yes, combination therapy is a recurring theme in all body sculpting.

But actually, within the cryo-modality itself alone, there is some heat involved with the best therapies available on the market. More is better. This is one of those universes.

The deeper or longer the burn on the fat, the more persistent the fat burn. Unfortunately, though, deeper burning from severely lower temperatures is producing side effects, some of which are well tolerated, some of which are not.

Moderate speculation here but follow my train of thought. If overly intense cooling is leading to some nodules in some patients that are detected visibly, who’s to say they are not producing more microscopic nodules and patients that aren’t noticed visibly.

Either type of nodule is still a growth, even though it may be a benign growth. Well, see if you can follow this. It is well established and known in medicine that benign growths can become malignant.

So, you make your own conclusions, but the more growths you are producing, nodules and otherwise, microscopic and macroscopic, the more risk there is for malignancy. And that seems to be proving out.

Moore reports of malignancy are being reported with colder temperature therapies. None are being reported with moderate cold therapies.

Conclusion

When it comes to fat burning, we’re Garlist of the modality, everyone in the industry, medical and nonmedical, want to come to aesthetics, we all agree - - it’s all about a sweet spot. If you don’t do enough, you don’t get enough results. If you do too much, there are risks, plus you don’t get results.

That leaves for the purposes of this discussion... The deeper killing produced by longer treatment therapies in safer temperature modalities are producing longer lasting fat killing, probably more effective and definitely safer. And cheaper.

The tolerance of almost any fat loss as it occurs as well as long-term is proving to be dramatically excellent.

 

 
How can I improve my anxiety?
 

Stem Cells - Umbilical Vs. Fat

Introduction

Up until now, you have had two big choices for the care of local problems or systemic diseases, drugs and surgery. You now have a new option, regenerative medicine. And, in brief, then includes stem cells for regenerating body tissues and peptides pour up regulating your body’s own growth hormone to cause growth of new tissue and healing. Here, I review stem cells.

The two most growing, popular sources, umbilical and fat extracted, are available to you today. However, nobody understands them. Not even your doctor. That is because they’re new, for one, and big Pharma and the federal government have little interest in you learning about them.

At this point, there are very few sources available to educate a nation, a world, about the rapid advances in what we know about stem cells. I here present a summary, a heads up overview, comparing these two major sources of stem cells.

 Disclaimers

This is solely for the purpose of education. I want to bring you up to speed in 2019. Umbilical donor and fat extracted cells. 

Discussion

There is much mudslinging between these two camps. I am a member of a relatively new, growing camp that wants to use everything available to us in a very customized per patient, yet collaborative between clinicians’ approach.

Clearly, umbilical has its strengths. Clearly, fat stem cells have their strengths. Clearly, the umbilical donor source has its disadvantages. Clearly, the fat extracted source has its disadvantages. And I’ll try to process this in a heads up fashion where possible.

For, every child and adult deserve to receive the benefit of these newly discovered healing cells. Extracted fat stem cells come from a limited reserve. They are limited in that there’s only so many cells in your body to extract.

Further, as we age, they diminish in number and function - although some fat reserves like the love handles, their usage has been so little over the decades that they maybe youthful and plentiful number. And if your stem cells are becoming less and less functional and plentiful as we age, perhaps we should leave them to the body’s purposes as we move into our elder years.

So, as we age, they’re probably a less and less attractive source. But, while you are young, they represent a great source especially if large amounts are required for a use demanding more for better care because there’s no likelihood challenge with higher doses.

Some terrific uses of stem cells do require larger doses. So, in a more is better world (MS, renal failure, pulmonary disorders like COPD, autism), where you want more cells, using your own cells to avoid immune risk at the large numbers of cells required to get a desirable response may be wise.

And perhaps (perhaps) aging stem cells, possibly designed more to pass on also inflammation signals so that nature can accomplish her plan to age us off the planet to make room for her young - perhaps this is yet another reason to avoid using stem cells in the elderly.

Umbilical stem cells in contrast come from an unlimited reserve, donor cells to be cloned ad infinitum. But even if there are no limits in availability of numbers, there are limits here in how many we can use. The downside fee we pay here may be risk of immune rejection from the excessive use in numbers per deployment or numbers of deployments.

As they are not autologous, but rather are allergenic, they are foreign to our body, so there are upper limits how many we can use without triggering immune risk. So, necessarily having to use smaller doses of umbilical source cells may be a factor.

But it will not be a restrictive factor if used non-systemically - knees, penises, tendons. If localized uses require less stem cells because there are only so many receptors for the stem cells to interact with in confined small areas... We may not have a problem.

If the stem cell deployed is a native stem cell as is the case in autologous, fat extracts, their interaction with our tissue cells is direct and surely reproduces what our body would do with its tissues’ own cells. But is the signaling the same for umbilical, allogenic foreign cells from a donor? Does the effect linger with autologous cells? Is there a signal shut down with foreign sourced cells?

So, does one source produce a stronger longer result? Does one produce more of a delayed result because it’s less familiar to the tissue? Time will tell no lies. But anecdotally there seem to be differences. Both share limits in care for two main groups of disorders. Neither extracted stem cells are used in partnering.

Conclusion

Both sources of adult mesenchymal cells are extremely safe, and the feds, in having cleared them, allows us to say this. Both sources work as patient funded investigation is showing. Both have their sweet spots. And although there is still more work, this is not another episode of Jurassic Park.

This is an exciting time to be alive if you’re looking to improve quality of living, treat illness without drugs, or prolong life.

  • Fat extracted: under 60 in general?
  • Systemic diseases that require more numbers for systemic IV deployment?
  • Umbilical: all ages especially over 60?
  • Systemic disease so IV deployment okay but.... Avoid large doses? And autoimmune diseases?

The ones with twitchy self-destructive antibodies - let’s not trigger cascades with too much of our fat extracted cells - and perhaps stick to umbilical? The autoimmune disorders with defenses twitchy to foreign antigens - let’s not use too much umbilical per treatment or over time? And certainly, avoid aged fat stem cell donors to youth hosts unless it’s a last result? And when our hands are really tied for stem cells, rally to...

Peptides to up regulate the body’s own growth hormone signaling locally or systemically for the healing and regeneration that allows? That’s another story!

Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve my depression?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my muscles?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my erections?
 

Erectile Dysfunctions

Disclaimer 
This is for educational purposes only. It’s healthy to know how you work. If you were having problems, please seek the direct consultation of a qualified, licensed physician. 

Erectile function 

A basic understanding of erectile function is a prerequisite to reviewing erectile function. For this, you must understand the phases of erectile function. 

Oversimplifying of course, you get an erection (or you don’t; or its poor angle prevents penetration); your erection persists (or it doesn’t); and you get a satisfactory ejaculation (or you don’t; the least of your concerns if you haven’t penetrated your partner in years because of injury or illness or just lack of use). 

Different men are trying to achieve different abilities with each of these three phases. So, as long as the physician and the patient work as a team, and as long as I get couples to expect less and enjoy more, well, I have found that I have never produced dissolution for anybody with care I have provided. 

Anyway, back to function. First phase, the formation of an erection, is based on cavernous sinuses of the penis filling with blood. Thus, first phase depends on inflow. The second phase of erection is persistence. Persistence depends on those veins that you see outside of the penis. The more those things are developed, in number, size, and amount in general, the more the tunica albuginea can distort them. The more the tunica albuginea can distort them, more persistent an erection. Thus, second phase depends on outflow. 

The distinction of inflow and outflow, of erection in contrast to persistence, and then in turn the important contrast of erection and ejaculation, are all important distinctions because things that help the two phases of erection may hurt ejaculation. Drugs for example that contribute to erection formation like Viagra actually can make ejaculation less satisfying at higher doses. Hence, everyone’s interest in lowering the doses of drugs in general... Side effects... Is here key. 

This brings up another point. Some people try to promote persistence of erections with drugs like Viagra. That is not a good strategy, as you now understand. Again, just to be clear, Viagra is good for you getting an erection. Not so good for maintaining an erection, and even working against you when it comes to producing satisfying ejaculation. 

Back to nervous system control of male sexual function, the parasympathetic system generally governs erection, the sympathetic nervous system governs ejaculation. P and S. Point and Shoot was the old pneumonic we always used to remember Parasympathetic and Sympathetic for erection and ejaculation, respectively. 


The spectrum of erectile dysfunction 

Even at a day to day level, normal males will experience fluctuations in erectile function that range from sub-par ability to frank dysfunction. Psychogenic and stress factors may also affect the nervous system’s control of erectile function thus also altering parasympathetic and sympathetic function. 

Heck, even eating affects erectile function. If your gut is full of blood digesting your food, less is going to get into your penis. There’s also dilution effect from a belly full of food on erection producing medications like Viagra. Most of these patients are aware of these limitations, and take such medicine on a more empty stomach to have the first phase of erection go better when they are in use. 

Psychogenic causes of erectile dysfunction are famous. Yes, even marriage causes erectile dysfunction according to some studies. But the first step... All organic illness must be entertained and aggressively ruled out. 

Yeah, the frank erectile dysfunction diseases and disorders. The causes of erectile dysfunction are worth keeping in mind, because every man that has had sexual difficulty may begin to wonder at some point or another, maybe this isn’t something normal. Or even psych. 

I think the mindful, intelligent, modern patient or the patient’s partner is really trying to ask, could my male partner have a “real” problem. This has many implications. Do they have a problem, or is this something I’m doing wrong; or the partner might entertain this possibility. If the “I’m doing something wrong“ is the issue, then that may need some attention. ASAP (any degree of her launch just use produces erectile dysfunction!). And these are all thoughts in a spectrum of healthy speculation, as long as expert physicians are kept involved, as long as care Is being attempted simultaneously to get function back to the junction while the work is underway, and the process remains a team effort designed to produce results - - and no one gets hung up on inner conflicts. But... 

If they indeed have a problem, then certainly the problem should be found and fixed. Could be a primary organic problem. Or it could be a secondary symptoms of another primary disorder that MUST be found (Instead of just masking that this order by treating the erectile dysfunction in and of itself). In other words, maybe erectile dysfunction is just a symptom something larger that should be addressed. Yes, one fairly important symptom. But a bigger problem needs to be fixed like diabetes or something. So, segue... And on to the problems that cause it. 

Yes, diabetes is a big cause. There are precursors to diabetes, pre-diabetic states if you will, including “metabolic syndrome” which is the number one cause of erectile dysfunction in this country. 

So if a physician is providing good care, all of the organic possibilities like diabetes and prediabetes including metabolic syndrome must be ruled out as care is entertained with exciting new treatments like shockwave therapy. And PRP. 

Another big cause of erectile dysfunction is something called Peyronie’s disease. It is a plaque or a pebble in the shaft of the penis. It causes the penis to tilt, making penetration complicated and difficult. 

That induration or plaque or pebble is scar tissue developing on the tunica albaginia. See below under question 4 for the significance of the tunica albaginia. 

So, pre-diabetes syndromes, including metabolic syndrome, and of course anatomic problems, including birth defects and Peyronie’s disease - - all leading causes of erectile dysfunction. 

Just about any other of the major chronic diseases can cause erectile dysfunction. 

Yer another entire class of dysfunction is vascular-genic dysfunction; 80% of all erectile dysfunction has a component of this in some estimates. That is, calcium deposits in the blood vessels can lead to vascular obstruction and reduced function. Hence, the response to medications like verapamil (see below). 

Radiation therapy destroys cells releasing platelet activating calcium, calcifying blood vessels harmfully as well. This produces erectile dysfunction quickly, and care should be started as early as possible in this setting for best treatment response. Many start the safest form of erectile dysfunction care, shockwave therapy (see below), right away in this setting knowing that such vasoactive erectile function is likely coming soon. 

Prostatectomy. An obvious cause of erectile dysfunction. 

Neurogenic lesions in the spine like in multiple sclerosis affect the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous function of erectile function (recall the “Point and Shoot” pneumonic, parasympathetic P governs Point, erection - - Sympathetic governs Shoot, ejaculation). 

Endocrine including low testosterone levels produces 10% Of the population of reduced function males. Hence, there’s not much to be gained by supplements. Plus the ever looming threat of suppressing your own body’s testosterone production by supplementing testosterone... Making testosterone supplements likely to produce yet another cause of erectile dysfunction when that notorious feedback loop goes awry. 

Pharmacologic destruction of erectile function, another obvious cause. NSAIDS are a big problem. Daily Advil or Aleve users or any of the cousins these drugs. Stop! It’s hurting your erectile function. 

Any of the CNS depressants... So, benzodiazepines, of course... But the depressant list goes on and on. SSRI’s (used for premature ejaculation and depression) and beta blockers can adversely affect erectile function (Although one interesting beta blocker, Bystolic, actually contributes to nitric oxide formation, improving erection formation - - so, a nice choice with a patient that wants to control blood pressure risks while improving erectile function.) 

And in the Venn diagram of things, there’s a great overlap amongst the different types of disorders that contribute to erectile dysfunction. 


Treatment 

In as much as the normal male can thus experience suboptimal erectile function, the normal male can strive to optimize erectile ability with different safe lifestyle practices and therapies. 

I like to think beyond hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which can be safe. There’s so, so much more! 

Lifestyle optimizations include maintaining a healthy weight, eating correctly, working out regularly, not participating in any regular substance abuse including alcohol, smoking, and marijuana. 

Penile injections, implants, pumps, PDI inhibitors - - all of these address erection formation. They produce little improvement in erection persistence. For that, we turn to anatomy boosting therapies, many of which do not even require drugs. 

Such therapies include shockwave, acoustic therapy (like GainsWave). The regimen involves a start up 6-12 sessions, followed by a yearly maintenance session. No drugs involved here. Just angiogenesis that is actually stimulated - - a revascularization of the veins of the shaft of the penis to maximize the persistence of erection. So much is written and spoken about returning function to the junction. Just regular sexual activity promotes lift off as well as persistence. And I am a big advocate of that. But what really is effective is getting the maximum anatomy back to the junction. That in turn leads in and of itself to ideal function in the junction today, and preserves it for decades of fullest function use. 

Since many causes of erectile disfunction stem from vasoactive dysfunction secondary to calcium deposition and secondary vascular dysfunction, calcium channel blockers like verapamil can work nicely. Atropine is another pharmacologic agent that can promote erection formation, thereby someone palliate erectile dysfunction. 

Continuing on the vascular campaign to remediate erectile dysfunction… One of the many procedures that help with vascular problems that wreck erectile dysfunction, clever surgery exists where a branch of the epigastric artery is brought down to the dorsal artery of the penis, allowing for better cavernous sinus filling, and hence improved erection formation. 

There are even ligaments that can be safely ligated, even in the B minus player, to prolong the penis, and thereby improve performance that way. 

For clinical situations where there is more extensive pathology to overcome, other surgery exists where a flexible filler rod is implanted into the cavernous sinuses. 9 out of 10 men get great satisfaction and response from this. 1 of 10 - - a very bad situation. Not only is it not effective in this unfortunate small group, but once the cavernous sinuses have been destroyed in this manner, sexual function may be very much adversely affected, to say the least. Bottom line, you need to know the risks. 


Conclusion 

There are many treatment options to shockwave for erectile dysfunction. 

Fixing the underlying problem like diabetes or metabolic disorder or anatomical disturbances or psychological problems is the most important first step in the treatment plan when there’s actual erectile dysfunction disease or disorder. 

Since a large portion of these pathological processes have a vasoactive underlying dysfunction, it stands to reason that vascular stabilizing medications like the calcium channel blocker‘s including forever no would help. And this is indeed the case. 

But living healthy is your best bet for maintaining optimal erectile function. 

Keeping sexually active is also key. 

And for therapies, avoid drugs, avoid surgeries... When you can, of course. The side effects are worth knowing and are in general strongly prohibitive. Move along... 

And strongly consider shockwave therapy - - super effective, and above all, safe. 

Stay good. And... Stay well. 

David Allingham, MD, MS

 
How can I improve my inflammation?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my longevity?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my marriage?
 

Thyroid

Introduction

Under the direct control of the pituitary gland as well as the feedback control from end organs it supplies, the thyroid controls the rate of metabolism. This is a brief discussion that will allow you to loosely understand if not interpret your thyroid blood tests when your physician does annual blood screening for wellness sake.

Disclaimer

When given your blood test results for safekeeping by your physician, never interpret them on your own without a physician’s guidance.

Discussion

There is huge value to having annual blood work that looks for the big killers at least, and many other things that your particular region of the country puts you at risk for. The big killers that we need to look for annually nationwide, regardless of your region, are thyroid disease, diabetes, and cancer.

This discussion just focuses on thyroid disease. The thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary. The pituitary control of it is governed by the master gland, the hypothalamus. All these other topics you should master if you want to get a good handle on your health.

For now, all we will discuss is thyroid function. The thyroid is stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) released by the pituitary in order for the thyroid to function. Then, thyroid hormone goes throughout your body and stimulates tissues. Then, the tissues tell the thyroid and pituitary to back off and function less.

Thyroid function can be excessive for many reasons. Infection, malignancy (cancer), auto immune disease when your body makes antibodies against itself, and incorrect iodine intake are the big ones.

Autoimmune disease means your body has created an antibody that your own tissue receptors respond to. Autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid gland might mean that antibodies your body is making can increase thyroid function or decrease thyroid function.

The hyperthyroidism caused by autoimmune antibodies that your body makes to increase your thyroid function is known as Grave’s disease. Antibodies against the thyroid in Grave’s disease mimic TSH so these antibodies stimulate the thyroid, and excessive thyroid hormone is produced.

Autoimmune disease in which your body produces antibodies that inhibit thyroid production is known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. The antibodies produced in Hashimoto’s disease make the thyroid produce less thyroid hormone, so it’s called hypothyroidism.

Now you might think that if you want to assess thyroid function in annual wellness blood-work, you might want to measure thyroid hormone. Unfortunately, that is not as sensitive as looking at TSH, the hormone produced by the pituitary to make the thyroid go. And so that’s what physicians do.

So, if you were going to be looking at TSH to gauge whether not you have a hypothyroid or a hyperthyroid state (or a euthyroid state which means normal), then you will look at it like this.

A high TSH means your pituitary has to work harder to get your thyroid to do anything. So high TSH means hypothyroidism. A low TSH conversely means hyperthyroidism. The thyroid is producing thyroid hormone in excess, so it’s telling the pituitary to back off. Low TSH means hyperthyroidism; high TSH means hypothyroidism.

The thyroid gland also produces calcitonin. Its function is to “tone” down calcium levels in the body (I’m afraid the only pneumonic in this topic). It does this by making the calcium move into bones.

So, we end up with less calcium in the blood stream, more calcium in the bones. We should be watching for blood levels of calcium to assess whether not there is a calcitonin problem.

For completeness sake, I should mention that there is an opposing hormone produced by the parathyroid gland (four little glands that live on the thyroid coincidentally) simply called parathyroid hormone that mobilizes calcium from the bones, so increases calcium in the blood stream when it’s needed by destroying bone.

Conclusion

We follow TSH levels in the blood to assess thyroid function even though TSH is a pituitary hormone. We do this because TSH levels are more sensitive to hypo and hyperthyroidism. If the pituitary is producing too much TSH, your thyroid function is diminished.

And that is an important work up that has to be done by endocrinologist. If your annual TSH is low, that means your thyroid is working too hard. That hyperthyroidism needs to be referred to and worked up by an endocrinologist as well.

Either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism must be worked up. It can’t just be blindly treated with extra thyroid hormone for hypo or with drugs that destroy the thyroid

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve my husband's sexual function?
 

Erectile Dysfunctions

Disclaimer 
This is for educational purposes only. It’s healthy to know how you work. If you were having problems, please seek the direct consultation of a qualified, licensed physician. 

Erectile function 

A basic understanding of erectile function is a prerequisite to reviewing erectile function. For this, you must understand the phases of erectile function. 

Oversimplifying of course, you get an erection (or you don’t; or its poor angle prevents penetration); your erection persists (or it doesn’t); and you get a satisfactory ejaculation (or you don’t; the least of your concerns if you haven’t penetrated your partner in years because of injury or illness or just lack of use). 

Different men are trying to achieve different abilities with each of these three phases. So, as long as the physician and the patient work as a team, and as long as I get couples to expect less and enjoy more, well, I have found that I have never produced dissolution for anybody with care I have provided. 

Anyway, back to function. First phase, the formation of an erection, is based on cavernous sinuses of the penis filling with blood. Thus, first phase depends on inflow. The second phase of erection is persistence. Persistence depends on those veins that you see outside of the penis. The more those things are developed, in number, size, and amount in general, the more the tunica albuginea can distort them. The more the tunica albuginea can distort them, more persistent an erection. Thus, second phase depends on outflow. 

The distinction of inflow and outflow, of erection in contrast to persistence, and then in turn the important contrast of erection and ejaculation, are all important distinctions because things that help the two phases of erection may hurt ejaculation. Drugs for example that contribute to erection formation like Viagra actually can make ejaculation less satisfying at higher doses. Hence, everyone’s interest in lowering the doses of drugs in general... Side effects... Is here key. 

This brings up another point. Some people try to promote persistence of erections with drugs like Viagra. That is not a good strategy, as you now understand. Again, just to be clear, Viagra is good for you getting an erection. Not so good for maintaining an erection, and even working against you when it comes to producing satisfying ejaculation. 

Back to nervous system control of male sexual function, the parasympathetic system generally governs erection, the sympathetic nervous system governs ejaculation. P and S. Point and Shoot was the old pneumonic we always used to remember Parasympathetic and Sympathetic for erection and ejaculation, respectively. 


The spectrum of erectile dysfunction 

Even at a day to day level, normal males will experience fluctuations in erectile function that range from sub-par ability to frank dysfunction. Psychogenic and stress factors may also affect the nervous system’s control of erectile function thus also altering parasympathetic and sympathetic function. 

Heck, even eating affects erectile function. If your gut is full of blood digesting your food, less is going to get into your penis. There’s also dilution effect from a belly full of food on erection producing medications like Viagra. Most of these patients are aware of these limitations, and take such medicine on a more empty stomach to have the first phase of erection go better when they are in use. 

Psychogenic causes of erectile dysfunction are famous. Yes, even marriage causes erectile dysfunction according to some studies. But the first step... All organic illness must be entertained and aggressively ruled out. 

Yeah, the frank erectile dysfunction diseases and disorders. The causes of erectile dysfunction are worth keeping in mind, because every man that has had sexual difficulty may begin to wonder at some point or another, maybe this isn’t something normal. Or even psych. 

I think the mindful, intelligent, modern patient or the patient’s partner is really trying to ask, could my male partner have a “real” problem. This has many implications. Do they have a problem, or is this something I’m doing wrong; or the partner might entertain this possibility. If the “I’m doing something wrong“ is the issue, then that may need some attention. ASAP (any degree of her launch just use produces erectile dysfunction!). And these are all thoughts in a spectrum of healthy speculation, as long as expert physicians are kept involved, as long as care Is being attempted simultaneously to get function back to the junction while the work is underway, and the process remains a team effort designed to produce results - - and no one gets hung up on inner conflicts. But... 

If they indeed have a problem, then certainly the problem should be found and fixed. Could be a primary organic problem. Or it could be a secondary symptoms of another primary disorder that MUST be found (Instead of just masking that this order by treating the erectile dysfunction in and of itself). In other words, maybe erectile dysfunction is just a symptom something larger that should be addressed. Yes, one fairly important symptom. But a bigger problem needs to be fixed like diabetes or something. So, segue... And on to the problems that cause it. 

Yes, diabetes is a big cause. There are precursors to diabetes, pre-diabetic states if you will, including “metabolic syndrome” which is the number one cause of erectile dysfunction in this country. 

So if a physician is providing good care, all of the organic possibilities like diabetes and prediabetes including metabolic syndrome must be ruled out as care is entertained with exciting new treatments like shockwave therapy. And PRP. 

Another big cause of erectile dysfunction is something called Peyronie’s disease. It is a plaque or a pebble in the shaft of the penis. It causes the penis to tilt, making penetration complicated and difficult. 

That induration or plaque or pebble is scar tissue developing on the tunica albaginia. See below under question 4 for the significance of the tunica albaginia. 

So, pre-diabetes syndromes, including metabolic syndrome, and of course anatomic problems, including birth defects and Peyronie’s disease - - all leading causes of erectile dysfunction. 

Just about any other of the major chronic diseases can cause erectile dysfunction. 

Yer another entire class of dysfunction is vascular-genic dysfunction; 80% of all erectile dysfunction has a component of this in some estimates. That is, calcium deposits in the blood vessels can lead to vascular obstruction and reduced function. Hence, the response to medications like verapamil (see below). 

Radiation therapy destroys cells releasing platelet activating calcium, calcifying blood vessels harmfully as well. This produces erectile dysfunction quickly, and care should be started as early as possible in this setting for best treatment response. Many start the safest form of erectile dysfunction care, shockwave therapy (see below), right away in this setting knowing that such vasoactive erectile function is likely coming soon. 

Prostatectomy. An obvious cause of erectile dysfunction. 

Neurogenic lesions in the spine like in multiple sclerosis affect the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous function of erectile function (recall the “Point and Shoot” pneumonic, parasympathetic P governs Point, erection - - Sympathetic governs Shoot, ejaculation). 

Endocrine including low testosterone levels produces 10% Of the population of reduced function males. Hence, there’s not much to be gained by supplements. Plus the ever looming threat of suppressing your own body’s testosterone production by supplementing testosterone... Making testosterone supplements likely to produce yet another cause of erectile dysfunction when that notorious feedback loop goes awry. 

Pharmacologic destruction of erectile function, another obvious cause. NSAIDS are a big problem. Daily Advil or Aleve users or any of the cousins these drugs. Stop! It’s hurting your erectile function. 

Any of the CNS depressants... So, benzodiazepines, of course... But the depressant list goes on and on. SSRI’s (used for premature ejaculation and depression) and beta blockers can adversely affect erectile function (Although one interesting beta blocker, Bystolic, actually contributes to nitric oxide formation, improving erection formation - - so, a nice choice with a patient that wants to control blood pressure risks while improving erectile function.) 

And in the Venn diagram of things, there’s a great overlap amongst the different types of disorders that contribute to erectile dysfunction. 


Treatment 

In as much as the normal male can thus experience suboptimal erectile function, the normal male can strive to optimize erectile ability with different safe lifestyle practices and therapies. 

I like to think beyond hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which can be safe. There’s so, so much more! 

Lifestyle optimizations include maintaining a healthy weight, eating correctly, working out regularly, not participating in any regular substance abuse including alcohol, smoking, and marijuana. 

Penile injections, implants, pumps, PDI inhibitors - - all of these address erection formation. They produce little improvement in erection persistence. For that, we turn to anatomy boosting therapies, many of which do not even require drugs. 

Such therapies include shockwave, acoustic therapy (like GainsWave). The regimen involves a start up 6-12 sessions, followed by a yearly maintenance session. No drugs involved here. Just angiogenesis that is actually stimulated - - a revascularization of the veins of the shaft of the penis to maximize the persistence of erection. So much is written and spoken about returning function to the junction. Just regular sexual activity promotes lift off as well as persistence. And I am a big advocate of that. But what really is effective is getting the maximum anatomy back to the junction. That in turn leads in and of itself to ideal function in the junction today, and preserves it for decades of fullest function use. 

Since many causes of erectile disfunction stem from vasoactive dysfunction secondary to calcium deposition and secondary vascular dysfunction, calcium channel blockers like verapamil can work nicely. Atropine is another pharmacologic agent that can promote erection formation, thereby someone palliate erectile dysfunction. 

Continuing on the vascular campaign to remediate erectile dysfunction… One of the many procedures that help with vascular problems that wreck erectile dysfunction, clever surgery exists where a branch of the epigastric artery is brought down to the dorsal artery of the penis, allowing for better cavernous sinus filling, and hence improved erection formation. 

There are even ligaments that can be safely ligated, even in the B minus player, to prolong the penis, and thereby improve performance that way. 

For clinical situations where there is more extensive pathology to overcome, other surgery exists where a flexible filler rod is implanted into the cavernous sinuses. 9 out of 10 men get great satisfaction and response from this. 1 of 10 - - a very bad situation. Not only is it not effective in this unfortunate small group, but once the cavernous sinuses have been destroyed in this manner, sexual function may be very much adversely affected, to say the least. Bottom line, you need to know the risks. 


Conclusion 

There are many treatment options to shockwave for erectile dysfunction. 

Fixing the underlying problem like diabetes or metabolic disorder or anatomical disturbances or psychological problems is the most important first step in the treatment plan when there’s actual erectile dysfunction disease or disorder. 

Since a large portion of these pathological processes have a vasoactive underlying dysfunction, it stands to reason that vascular stabilizing medications like the calcium channel blocker‘s including forever no would help. And this is indeed the case. 

But living healthy is your best bet for maintaining optimal erectile function. 

Keeping sexually active is also key. 

And for therapies, avoid drugs, avoid surgeries... When you can, of course. The side effects are worth knowing and are in general strongly prohibitive. Move along... 

And strongly consider shockwave therapy - - super effective, and above all, safe. 

Stay good. And... Stay well. 

David Allingham, MD, MS

 
How can I improve my sexual function?
 

Erectile Dysfunctions

Disclaimer 
This is for educational purposes only. It’s healthy to know how you work. If you were having problems, please seek the direct consultation of a qualified, licensed physician. 

Erectile function 

A basic understanding of erectile function is a prerequisite to reviewing erectile function. For this, you must understand the phases of erectile function. 

Oversimplifying of course, you get an erection (or you don’t; or its poor angle prevents penetration); your erection persists (or it doesn’t); and you get a satisfactory ejaculation (or you don’t; the least of your concerns if you haven’t penetrated your partner in years because of injury or illness or just lack of use). 

Different men are trying to achieve different abilities with each of these three phases. So, as long as the physician and the patient work as a team, and as long as I get couples to expect less and enjoy more, well, I have found that I have never produced dissolution for anybody with care I have provided. 

Anyway, back to function. First phase, the formation of an erection, is based on cavernous sinuses of the penis filling with blood. Thus, first phase depends on inflow. The second phase of erection is persistence. Persistence depends on those veins that you see outside of the penis. The more those things are developed, in number, size, and amount in general, the more the tunica albuginea can distort them. The more the tunica albuginea can distort them, more persistent an erection. Thus, second phase depends on outflow. 

The distinction of inflow and outflow, of erection in contrast to persistence, and then in turn the important contrast of erection and ejaculation, are all important distinctions because things that help the two phases of erection may hurt ejaculation. Drugs for example that contribute to erection formation like Viagra actually can make ejaculation less satisfying at higher doses. Hence, everyone’s interest in lowering the doses of drugs in general... Side effects... Is here key. 

This brings up another point. Some people try to promote persistence of erections with drugs like Viagra. That is not a good strategy, as you now understand. Again, just to be clear, Viagra is good for you getting an erection. Not so good for maintaining an erection, and even working against you when it comes to producing satisfying ejaculation. 

Back to nervous system control of male sexual function, the parasympathetic system generally governs erection, the sympathetic nervous system governs ejaculation. P and S. Point and Shoot was the old pneumonic we always used to remember Parasympathetic and Sympathetic for erection and ejaculation, respectively. 


The spectrum of erectile dysfunction 

Even at a day to day level, normal males will experience fluctuations in erectile function that range from sub-par ability to frank dysfunction. Psychogenic and stress factors may also affect the nervous system’s control of erectile function thus also altering parasympathetic and sympathetic function. 

Heck, even eating affects erectile function. If your gut is full of blood digesting your food, less is going to get into your penis. There’s also dilution effect from a belly full of food on erection producing medications like Viagra. Most of these patients are aware of these limitations, and take such medicine on a more empty stomach to have the first phase of erection go better when they are in use. 

Psychogenic causes of erectile dysfunction are famous. Yes, even marriage causes erectile dysfunction according to some studies. But the first step... All organic illness must be entertained and aggressively ruled out. 

Yeah, the frank erectile dysfunction diseases and disorders. The causes of erectile dysfunction are worth keeping in mind, because every man that has had sexual difficulty may begin to wonder at some point or another, maybe this isn’t something normal. Or even psych. 

I think the mindful, intelligent, modern patient or the patient’s partner is really trying to ask, could my male partner have a “real” problem. This has many implications. Do they have a problem, or is this something I’m doing wrong; or the partner might entertain this possibility. If the “I’m doing something wrong“ is the issue, then that may need some attention. ASAP (any degree of her launch just use produces erectile dysfunction!). And these are all thoughts in a spectrum of healthy speculation, as long as expert physicians are kept involved, as long as care Is being attempted simultaneously to get function back to the junction while the work is underway, and the process remains a team effort designed to produce results - - and no one gets hung up on inner conflicts. But... 

If they indeed have a problem, then certainly the problem should be found and fixed. Could be a primary organic problem. Or it could be a secondary symptoms of another primary disorder that MUST be found (Instead of just masking that this order by treating the erectile dysfunction in and of itself). In other words, maybe erectile dysfunction is just a symptom something larger that should be addressed. Yes, one fairly important symptom. But a bigger problem needs to be fixed like diabetes or something. So, segue... And on to the problems that cause it. 

Yes, diabetes is a big cause. There are precursors to diabetes, pre-diabetic states if you will, including “metabolic syndrome” which is the number one cause of erectile dysfunction in this country. 

So if a physician is providing good care, all of the organic possibilities like diabetes and prediabetes including metabolic syndrome must be ruled out as care is entertained with exciting new treatments like shockwave therapy. And PRP. 

Another big cause of erectile dysfunction is something called Peyronie’s disease. It is a plaque or a pebble in the shaft of the penis. It causes the penis to tilt, making penetration complicated and difficult. 

That induration or plaque or pebble is scar tissue developing on the tunica albaginia. See below under question 4 for the significance of the tunica albaginia. 

So, pre-diabetes syndromes, including metabolic syndrome, and of course anatomic problems, including birth defects and Peyronie’s disease - - all leading causes of erectile dysfunction. 

Just about any other of the major chronic diseases can cause erectile dysfunction. 

Yer another entire class of dysfunction is vascular-genic dysfunction; 80% of all erectile dysfunction has a component of this in some estimates. That is, calcium deposits in the blood vessels can lead to vascular obstruction and reduced function. Hence, the response to medications like verapamil (see below). 

Radiation therapy destroys cells releasing platelet activating calcium, calcifying blood vessels harmfully as well. This produces erectile dysfunction quickly, and care should be started as early as possible in this setting for best treatment response. Many start the safest form of erectile dysfunction care, shockwave therapy (see below), right away in this setting knowing that such vasoactive erectile function is likely coming soon. 

Prostatectomy. An obvious cause of erectile dysfunction. 

Neurogenic lesions in the spine like in multiple sclerosis affect the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous function of erectile function (recall the “Point and Shoot” pneumonic, parasympathetic P governs Point, erection - - Sympathetic governs Shoot, ejaculation). 

Endocrine including low testosterone levels produces 10% Of the population of reduced function males. Hence, there’s not much to be gained by supplements. Plus the ever looming threat of suppressing your own body’s testosterone production by supplementing testosterone... Making testosterone supplements likely to produce yet another cause of erectile dysfunction when that notorious feedback loop goes awry. 

Pharmacologic destruction of erectile function, another obvious cause. NSAIDS are a big problem. Daily Advil or Aleve users or any of the cousins these drugs. Stop! It’s hurting your erectile function. 

Any of the CNS depressants... So, benzodiazepines, of course... But the depressant list goes on and on. SSRI’s (used for premature ejaculation and depression) and beta blockers can adversely affect erectile function (Although one interesting beta blocker, Bystolic, actually contributes to nitric oxide formation, improving erection formation - - so, a nice choice with a patient that wants to control blood pressure risks while improving erectile function.) 

And in the Venn diagram of things, there’s a great overlap amongst the different types of disorders that contribute to erectile dysfunction. 


Treatment 

In as much as the normal male can thus experience suboptimal erectile function, the normal male can strive to optimize erectile ability with different safe lifestyle practices and therapies. 

I like to think beyond hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which can be safe. There’s so, so much more! 

Lifestyle optimizations include maintaining a healthy weight, eating correctly, working out regularly, not participating in any regular substance abuse including alcohol, smoking, and marijuana. 

Penile injections, implants, pumps, PDI inhibitors - - all of these address erection formation. They produce little improvement in erection persistence. For that, we turn to anatomy boosting therapies, many of which do not even require drugs. 

Such therapies include shockwave, acoustic therapy (like GainsWave). The regimen involves a start up 6-12 sessions, followed by a yearly maintenance session. No drugs involved here. Just angiogenesis that is actually stimulated - - a revascularization of the veins of the shaft of the penis to maximize the persistence of erection. So much is written and spoken about returning function to the junction. Just regular sexual activity promotes lift off as well as persistence. And I am a big advocate of that. But what really is effective is getting the maximum anatomy back to the junction. That in turn leads in and of itself to ideal function in the junction today, and preserves it for decades of fullest function use. 

Since many causes of erectile disfunction stem from vasoactive dysfunction secondary to calcium deposition and secondary vascular dysfunction, calcium channel blockers like verapamil can work nicely. Atropine is another pharmacologic agent that can promote erection formation, thereby someone palliate erectile dysfunction. 

Continuing on the vascular campaign to remediate erectile dysfunction… One of the many procedures that help with vascular problems that wreck erectile dysfunction, clever surgery exists where a branch of the epigastric artery is brought down to the dorsal artery of the penis, allowing for better cavernous sinus filling, and hence improved erection formation. 

There are even ligaments that can be safely ligated, even in the B minus player, to prolong the penis, and thereby improve performance that way. 

For clinical situations where there is more extensive pathology to overcome, other surgery exists where a flexible filler rod is implanted into the cavernous sinuses. 9 out of 10 men get great satisfaction and response from this. 1 of 10 - - a very bad situation. Not only is it not effective in this unfortunate small group, but once the cavernous sinuses have been destroyed in this manner, sexual function may be very much adversely affected, to say the least. Bottom line, you need to know the risks. 


Conclusion 

There are many treatment options to shockwave for erectile dysfunction. 

Fixing the underlying problem like diabetes or metabolic disorder or anatomical disturbances or psychological problems is the most important first step in the treatment plan when there’s actual erectile dysfunction disease or disorder. 

Since a large portion of these pathological processes have a vasoactive underlying dysfunction, it stands to reason that vascular stabilizing medications like the calcium channel blocker‘s including forever no would help. And this is indeed the case. 

But living healthy is your best bet for maintaining optimal erectile function. 

Keeping sexually active is also key. 

And for therapies, avoid drugs, avoid surgeries... When you can, of course. The side effects are worth knowing and are in general strongly prohibitive. Move along... 

And strongly consider shockwave therapy - - super effective, and above all, safe. 

Stay good. And... Stay well. 

David Allingham, MD, MS

 
How can I improve my skin tightness?
 

Cellulite

Introduction

What affects 95% of all women (over puberty) and 10% of all men? Cellulite.
 
Nonsurgical treatment options available today for significantly reducing if not completely treating cellulite are reviewed here for the layman and physician alike.

 

Disclaimer

Nonsurgical yes. But at the same time, not you - should be guiding his care. Do not try to simulate any of this care with any Brookstone gadgets from your local mall.
 
Yes, you should consider it. In a team wise approach with a physician you can trust.
 
Having said that, the physician you team up with should be able to accept a strong working partnership with you that allows both you and him to guide your care.
 
What I offer here is humble opinion for educational purposes only. However, in this generalized summary of the current medical literature, patient satisfaction in study after study is 92% or more in the modalities applauded below.

 

Discussion

First, before the famous F’s, the history and physical exam by the physician. These are the things your doctor should be assessing before you dive into therapy. This distinguishes a good doctor from a mill. They are assessing, they are considering, they are generating a plan. It’s all done with you. You are completely involved if your aesthetic physician is a good doc. And plenty of them are, and plenty of them aren’t.
 
History. Was there trauma before, especially in the teenage years. That can lead to sclerotic tissue. It can also lead to skin sagging.
 
Physical exam. He or she must feel your thighs, arms, areas where cellulite can occur. Are there scars under there. That can lead to fibrous tissue. That can lead to skin sagging. Exam is done without the patient generating any muscle tension in the region being assessed. Just relax. The physician palpates the region.
 
[There is a nice clinical correlation here. How do you distinguish fibrous bands from blood flow restricted areas from skin laxity. Here is a generally accepted examination technique. With the patient refraining from any muscle tension, the physician gently pulls up on the skin. If the clinician gently pulls up and the dimpling disappears, it is overly flexible skin or skin laxity.]
 
And here’s your pneumonic, right up front. “The three F’s“ - Fat, Fiber, Fitness. Or fit’nass, like my more vulgar Beverly Hills counterparts like to say. Because it’s all about the derrière “in the end”? (sorry I couldn’t resist). But I’ll save that for... The end. Okay, okay... Enough. I’m a get myself in trouble.
 
  1. Fat. For the fat component… There’s always liposuction. That has complications. Not just the classic fat embolus concern, but other surgical complications. Edema? Yeah. And it hurts more. And it’s more expensive. And the results aren’t always that great, not that even, there can be dimpling, there’s wound care, and there is a variability in the surgical teams you have across the land. Do it, For sure. But, in addition to the well researched plastic surgeon you choose, have a metabolic physician specialist involved postop to generate a plan for mobilizing the edema, treating underlying insulin resistance if there is any, generating motivational plans and modalities to make sure you continue with the great time, pain, and financial investment you have made in your temple.
 
But surgical liposuction is only a first possible step.. Many people are skipping it entirely today, or using other therapies in combination with it to produce spectacular results.
 
So, what has taken off for the past 10 years in the world of body sculpting are various nonsurgical modalities that produce lipolysis, death of the fat cells. These range from injecting chemicals into fatty areas that destroy fat (needles); to completely noninvasive nonsurgical options like laser, heat, and cold therapy.
 
And the brand new kid on the block, electromagnetic (EM), high impulse, therapy that not only kills fat cells, but also increases muscle cells in size AND NUMBER. Very exciting. Olympic athletes train 30% of their muscle most the time. This fat killing, first ever muscle augmenting nonsurgical body sculpting modality works out muscle 100%! Crazy. But it’s new. And that in my mind is about the only thing working against it. Let’s see what the next year or two shows for EM...
 
So. Non-surgical, fat killing modalities. Too good to be true? No. And clearly cheaper. Arguably safer, no doubt. And nicely effective. And you don’t have to miss any work. No downtime at all really. You don’t even have to stop working out, which will help one of the “F’s” below.
 
  1. Fiber. There are these nasty, tenacious fibers that occur around dimpling areas of fat from some prior trauma and what not that must be broken up. Unfortunately, often require surgery, or at least needling techniques that take some time and training to master. Probably little if any ways of getting around that.
 
The fibrous component of cellulite is what causes the dimpling. So I asked the ladies... It’s very very important!
 
Fibrous bands from some long ago forgotten injury that must be dealt with... Versus skin laxity... Which should be dealt with differently. Versus some important blood vessel you don’t want to damage! The world of the plastic surgeon! Gentle retraction on the skin by the hand of a trained surgeon produces difference effects, allowing them to distinguish between these important different things. Hence on to the right kind of surgery - - If you’re so inclined, and if you’re even a candidate according to the plastic surgeon’s experience.
 
But wait! There IS a non-surgical modality doctors can use to break up fibrous bands in dimpling cellulite. Shockwave therapy (SWT) provided by acoustic ultrasound machines can indeed break up some banding underneath the tissue of the skin if done aggressively enough. So, no needles. No surgery. And you can get rid of those fibrous bands over time — with a little persistence. And ultrasound SWT.
 
And another nice advantage to shockwave, ultrasound, acoustic therapy like this is that it increases new blood vessels in that area! Bonus! So, whatever fat has been destroyed by the non-invasive fat killing modalities mentioned above can have a faster, smoother exit from the subcutaneous tissue because of new increased vasculature. Rather than just wait for the body to rid the fat that has been killed by one of the nonsurgical modalities above by it’s regular pokey, slow rate (something the body doesn’t ever seem to want to do; am I right ladies?), ultrasound therapy increases vascularity in whatever tissue it is aimed at so the fat loss is faster. Faster fat elimination. That always sounds good.
 
  1. Fitness. The doctor does his part with the other two “F’s”. Here’s where the patient has to do her part. Here, I have to sell the cellulite patient on eating better than they ever have done before, exercising, non-impact of course (biking, not motorbiking —swimming, yeah you have to get wet, or kayaking, just kidding, but an option). Okay, okay, I’ll be nice. Anyway... I’m not sure why, if it’s the increased teamwork the genuinely interested physician fosters with his or her fat conscious patient, or maybe it’s increased investment they have finally made to their temple… But, bit by bit, the body sculpting patient tends to start doing the right thing! Really going to that gym they joined months ago, genuinely eating less because they are actually following calorie counts finally...
 
That’s right. The only way to genuinely eat less is to do calorie counts. I’ve spent time with people who swear they don’t eat much at all. They have no clue. To eat less, or less enough to make a difference anyway, you must do your calorie counts! Then... Stick to what you discover for 1 to 3 months, make a change downwards 10% if you are not losing weight. Etc. Easy.
 
The main other, easy carry away pearl is the four grades of cellulite:
 
  • 0. No dimpling even with pressure applied
  • 1. Dimpling only when pressure applied
  • 2. Dimpling visible standing but not lying down
  • 3. Dimpling visible even when lying
 
They are important because scientific studies prove that most patients can improve by one grade.
 
Most patients have only grade one cellulite.
 
You put these two facts together, you can conclude that, even if you cannot discontinue gravity, aging, and the formation of cellulite, you CAN keep cellulite at 0 or 1 if you do a few things. That is, you can always stay a step ahead and at 0 or 1 cellulite by maintenance programs of eating light and exercising if you first eliminate or reduce it using Cryo and Shockwave therapies.

 

Conclusion

So there are some kind of template that will definitely require surgery. But having said that, all of this is elective aesthetics anyway. And having said that, even if you want to alleviate those types of surgical dumpling, the surgeon may not find your candidate for it based on your presentation, based on his or her experience. The elective world must remain a safe world, a tolerable world, both medically and financially.
 
Fortunately, most kinds of cellulite are fully amenable to nonsurgical, noninvasive body contouring techniques. And partnering pairs of these modalities is clearly showing to be key if not synergistic. I’ve definitely seen combination therapy as a recurrent principal of noninvasive body sculpting care in general.
 
So, now it’s time to do your Internet search for the body sculpting modality of your choice! Aesthetics are important! And if you don’t think so, think about self-esteem. And don’t forget about eating less and exercising more. And please do all your care, even weight loss, with a team oriented, experienced doctor trained to keep scientific evidence on your side, geared towards putting you first at all times.
 
 
Stay well,
David Allingham, MD, MS

 

 
How can I improve my skin turgor?
 

Cellulite

Introduction

What affects 95% of all women (over puberty) and 10% of all men? Cellulite.
 
Nonsurgical treatment options available today for significantly reducing if not completely treating cellulite are reviewed here for the layman and physician alike.

 

Disclaimer

Nonsurgical yes. But at the same time, not you - should be guiding his care. Do not try to simulate any of this care with any Brookstone gadgets from your local mall.
 
Yes, you should consider it. In a team wise approach with a physician you can trust.
 
Having said that, the physician you team up with should be able to accept a strong working partnership with you that allows both you and him to guide your care.
 
What I offer here is humble opinion for educational purposes only. However, in this generalized summary of the current medical literature, patient satisfaction in study after study is 92% or more in the modalities applauded below.

 

Discussion

First, before the famous F’s, the history and physical exam by the physician. These are the things your doctor should be assessing before you dive into therapy. This distinguishes a good doctor from a mill. They are assessing, they are considering, they are generating a plan. It’s all done with you. You are completely involved if your aesthetic physician is a good doc. And plenty of them are, and plenty of them aren’t.
 
History. Was there trauma before, especially in the teenage years. That can lead to sclerotic tissue. It can also lead to skin sagging.
 
Physical exam. He or she must feel your thighs, arms, areas where cellulite can occur. Are there scars under there. That can lead to fibrous tissue. That can lead to skin sagging. Exam is done without the patient generating any muscle tension in the region being assessed. Just relax. The physician palpates the region.
 
[There is a nice clinical correlation here. How do you distinguish fibrous bands from blood flow restricted areas from skin laxity. Here is a generally accepted examination technique. With the patient refraining from any muscle tension, the physician gently pulls up on the skin. If the clinician gently pulls up and the dimpling disappears, it is overly flexible skin or skin laxity.]
 
And here’s your pneumonic, right up front. “The three F’s“ - Fat, Fiber, Fitness. Or fit’nass, like my more vulgar Beverly Hills counterparts like to say. Because it’s all about the derrière “in the end”? (sorry I couldn’t resist). But I’ll save that for... The end. Okay, okay... Enough. I’m a get myself in trouble.
 
  1. Fat. For the fat component… There’s always liposuction. That has complications. Not just the classic fat embolus concern, but other surgical complications. Edema? Yeah. And it hurts more. And it’s more expensive. And the results aren’t always that great, not that even, there can be dimpling, there’s wound care, and there is a variability in the surgical teams you have across the land. Do it, For sure. But, in addition to the well researched plastic surgeon you choose, have a metabolic physician specialist involved postop to generate a plan for mobilizing the edema, treating underlying insulin resistance if there is any, generating motivational plans and modalities to make sure you continue with the great time, pain, and financial investment you have made in your temple.
 
But surgical liposuction is only a first possible step.. Many people are skipping it entirely today, or using other therapies in combination with it to produce spectacular results.
 
So, what has taken off for the past 10 years in the world of body sculpting are various nonsurgical modalities that produce lipolysis, death of the fat cells. These range from injecting chemicals into fatty areas that destroy fat (needles); to completely noninvasive nonsurgical options like laser, heat, and cold therapy.
 
And the brand new kid on the block, electromagnetic (EM), high impulse, therapy that not only kills fat cells, but also increases muscle cells in size AND NUMBER. Very exciting. Olympic athletes train 30% of their muscle most the time. This fat killing, first ever muscle augmenting nonsurgical body sculpting modality works out muscle 100%! Crazy. But it’s new. And that in my mind is about the only thing working against it. Let’s see what the next year or two shows for EM...
 
So. Non-surgical, fat killing modalities. Too good to be true? No. And clearly cheaper. Arguably safer, no doubt. And nicely effective. And you don’t have to miss any work. No downtime at all really. You don’t even have to stop working out, which will help one of the “F’s” below.
 
  1. Fiber. There are these nasty, tenacious fibers that occur around dimpling areas of fat from some prior trauma and what not that must be broken up. Unfortunately, often require surgery, or at least needling techniques that take some time and training to master. Probably little if any ways of getting around that.
 
The fibrous component of cellulite is what causes the dimpling. So I asked the ladies... It’s very very important!
 
Fibrous bands from some long ago forgotten injury that must be dealt with... Versus skin laxity... Which should be dealt with differently. Versus some important blood vessel you don’t want to damage! The world of the plastic surgeon! Gentle retraction on the skin by the hand of a trained surgeon produces difference effects, allowing them to distinguish between these important different things. Hence on to the right kind of surgery - - If you’re so inclined, and if you’re even a candidate according to the plastic surgeon’s experience.
 
But wait! There IS a non-surgical modality doctors can use to break up fibrous bands in dimpling cellulite. Shockwave therapy (SWT) provided by acoustic ultrasound machines can indeed break up some banding underneath the tissue of the skin if done aggressively enough. So, no needles. No surgery. And you can get rid of those fibrous bands over time — with a little persistence. And ultrasound SWT.
 
And another nice advantage to shockwave, ultrasound, acoustic therapy like this is that it increases new blood vessels in that area! Bonus! So, whatever fat has been destroyed by the non-invasive fat killing modalities mentioned above can have a faster, smoother exit from the subcutaneous tissue because of new increased vasculature. Rather than just wait for the body to rid the fat that has been killed by one of the nonsurgical modalities above by it’s regular pokey, slow rate (something the body doesn’t ever seem to want to do; am I right ladies?), ultrasound therapy increases vascularity in whatever tissue it is aimed at so the fat loss is faster. Faster fat elimination. That always sounds good.
 
  1. Fitness. The doctor does his part with the other two “F’s”. Here’s where the patient has to do her part. Here, I have to sell the cellulite patient on eating better than they ever have done before, exercising, non-impact of course (biking, not motorbiking —swimming, yeah you have to get wet, or kayaking, just kidding, but an option). Okay, okay, I’ll be nice. Anyway... I’m not sure why, if it’s the increased teamwork the genuinely interested physician fosters with his or her fat conscious patient, or maybe it’s increased investment they have finally made to their temple… But, bit by bit, the body sculpting patient tends to start doing the right thing! Really going to that gym they joined months ago, genuinely eating less because they are actually following calorie counts finally...
 
That’s right. The only way to genuinely eat less is to do calorie counts. I’ve spent time with people who swear they don’t eat much at all. They have no clue. To eat less, or less enough to make a difference anyway, you must do your calorie counts! Then... Stick to what you discover for 1 to 3 months, make a change downwards 10% if you are not losing weight. Etc. Easy.
 
The main other, easy carry away pearl is the four grades of cellulite:
 
  • 0. No dimpling even with pressure applied
  • 1. Dimpling only when pressure applied
  • 2. Dimpling visible standing but not lying down
  • 3. Dimpling visible even when lying
 
They are important because scientific studies prove that most patients can improve by one grade.
 
Most patients have only grade one cellulite.
 
You put these two facts together, you can conclude that, even if you cannot discontinue gravity, aging, and the formation of cellulite, you CAN keep cellulite at 0 or 1 if you do a few things. That is, you can always stay a step ahead and at 0 or 1 cellulite by maintenance programs of eating light and exercising if you first eliminate or reduce it using Cryo and Shockwave therapies.

 

Conclusion

So there are some kind of template that will definitely require surgery. But having said that, all of this is elective aesthetics anyway. And having said that, even if you want to alleviate those types of surgical dumpling, the surgeon may not find your candidate for it based on your presentation, based on his or her experience. The elective world must remain a safe world, a tolerable world, both medically and financially.
 
Fortunately, most kinds of cellulite are fully amenable to nonsurgical, noninvasive body contouring techniques. And partnering pairs of these modalities is clearly showing to be key if not synergistic. I’ve definitely seen combination therapy as a recurrent principal of noninvasive body sculpting care in general.
 
So, now it’s time to do your Internet search for the body sculpting modality of your choice! Aesthetics are important! And if you don’t think so, think about self-esteem. And don’t forget about eating less and exercising more. And please do all your care, even weight loss, with a team oriented, experienced doctor trained to keep scientific evidence on your side, geared towards putting you first at all times.
 
 
Stay well,
David Allingham, MD, MS

 

 
How can I improve my core?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my Chrohns disease?
 

Stem Cells - Umbilical Vs. Fat

Introduction

Up until now, you have had two big choices for the care of local problems or systemic diseases, drugs and surgery. You now have a new option, regenerative medicine. And, in brief, then includes stem cells for regenerating body tissues and peptides pour up regulating your body’s own growth hormone to cause growth of new tissue and healing. Here, I review stem cells.

The two most growing, popular sources, umbilical and fat extracted, are available to you today. However, nobody understands them. Not even your doctor. That is because they’re new, for one, and big Pharma and the federal government have little interest in you learning about them.

At this point, there are very few sources available to educate a nation, a world, about the rapid advances in what we know about stem cells. I here present a summary, a heads up overview, comparing these two major sources of stem cells.

 Disclaimers

This is solely for the purpose of education. I want to bring you up to speed in 2019. Umbilical donor and fat extracted cells. 

Discussion

There is much mudslinging between these two camps. I am a member of a relatively new, growing camp that wants to use everything available to us in a very customized per patient, yet collaborative between clinicians’ approach.

Clearly, umbilical has its strengths. Clearly, fat stem cells have their strengths. Clearly, the umbilical donor source has its disadvantages. Clearly, the fat extracted source has its disadvantages. And I’ll try to process this in a heads up fashion where possible.

For, every child and adult deserve to receive the benefit of these newly discovered healing cells. Extracted fat stem cells come from a limited reserve. They are limited in that there’s only so many cells in your body to extract.

Further, as we age, they diminish in number and function - although some fat reserves like the love handles, their usage has been so little over the decades that they maybe youthful and plentiful number. And if your stem cells are becoming less and less functional and plentiful as we age, perhaps we should leave them to the body’s purposes as we move into our elder years.

So, as we age, they’re probably a less and less attractive source. But, while you are young, they represent a great source especially if large amounts are required for a use demanding more for better care because there’s no likelihood challenge with higher doses.

Some terrific uses of stem cells do require larger doses. So, in a more is better world (MS, renal failure, pulmonary disorders like COPD, autism), where you want more cells, using your own cells to avoid immune risk at the large numbers of cells required to get a desirable response may be wise.

And perhaps (perhaps) aging stem cells, possibly designed more to pass on also inflammation signals so that nature can accomplish her plan to age us off the planet to make room for her young - perhaps this is yet another reason to avoid using stem cells in the elderly.

Umbilical stem cells in contrast come from an unlimited reserve, donor cells to be cloned ad infinitum. But even if there are no limits in availability of numbers, there are limits here in how many we can use. The downside fee we pay here may be risk of immune rejection from the excessive use in numbers per deployment or numbers of deployments.

As they are not autologous, but rather are allergenic, they are foreign to our body, so there are upper limits how many we can use without triggering immune risk. So, necessarily having to use smaller doses of umbilical source cells may be a factor.

But it will not be a restrictive factor if used non-systemically - knees, penises, tendons. If localized uses require less stem cells because there are only so many receptors for the stem cells to interact with in confined small areas... We may not have a problem.

If the stem cell deployed is a native stem cell as is the case in autologous, fat extracts, their interaction with our tissue cells is direct and surely reproduces what our body would do with its tissues’ own cells. But is the signaling the same for umbilical, allogenic foreign cells from a donor? Does the effect linger with autologous cells? Is there a signal shut down with foreign sourced cells?

So, does one source produce a stronger longer result? Does one produce more of a delayed result because it’s less familiar to the tissue? Time will tell no lies. But anecdotally there seem to be differences. Both share limits in care for two main groups of disorders. Neither extracted stem cells are used in partnering.

Conclusion

Both sources of adult mesenchymal cells are extremely safe, and the feds, in having cleared them, allows us to say this. Both sources work as patient funded investigation is showing. Both have their sweet spots. And although there is still more work, this is not another episode of Jurassic Park.

This is an exciting time to be alive if you’re looking to improve quality of living, treat illness without drugs, or prolong life.

  • Fat extracted: under 60 in general?
  • Systemic diseases that require more numbers for systemic IV deployment?
  • Umbilical: all ages especially over 60?
  • Systemic disease so IV deployment okay but.... Avoid large doses? And autoimmune diseases?

The ones with twitchy self-destructive antibodies - let’s not trigger cascades with too much of our fat extracted cells - and perhaps stick to umbilical? The autoimmune disorders with defenses twitchy to foreign antigens - let’s not use too much umbilical per treatment or over time? And certainly, avoid aged fat stem cell donors to youth hosts unless it’s a last result? And when our hands are really tied for stem cells, rally to...

Peptides to up regulate the body’s own growth hormone signaling locally or systemically for the healing and regeneration that allows? That’s another story!

Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve my diarrhea?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my constipation?
 

Thyroid

Introduction

Under the direct control of the pituitary gland as well as the feedback control from end organs it supplies, the thyroid controls the rate of metabolism. This is a brief discussion that will allow you to loosely understand if not interpret your thyroid blood tests when your physician does annual blood screening for wellness sake.

Disclaimer

When given your blood test results for safekeeping by your physician, never interpret them on your own without a physician’s guidance.

Discussion

There is huge value to having annual blood work that looks for the big killers at least, and many other things that your particular region of the country puts you at risk for. The big killers that we need to look for annually nationwide, regardless of your region, are thyroid disease, diabetes, and cancer.

This discussion just focuses on thyroid disease. The thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary. The pituitary control of it is governed by the master gland, the hypothalamus. All these other topics you should master if you want to get a good handle on your health.

For now, all we will discuss is thyroid function. The thyroid is stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) released by the pituitary in order for the thyroid to function. Then, thyroid hormone goes throughout your body and stimulates tissues. Then, the tissues tell the thyroid and pituitary to back off and function less.

Thyroid function can be excessive for many reasons. Infection, malignancy (cancer), auto immune disease when your body makes antibodies against itself, and incorrect iodine intake are the big ones.

Autoimmune disease means your body has created an antibody that your own tissue receptors respond to. Autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid gland might mean that antibodies your body is making can increase thyroid function or decrease thyroid function.

The hyperthyroidism caused by autoimmune antibodies that your body makes to increase your thyroid function is known as Grave’s disease. Antibodies against the thyroid in Grave’s disease mimic TSH so these antibodies stimulate the thyroid, and excessive thyroid hormone is produced.

Autoimmune disease in which your body produces antibodies that inhibit thyroid production is known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. The antibodies produced in Hashimoto’s disease make the thyroid produce less thyroid hormone, so it’s called hypothyroidism.

Now you might think that if you want to assess thyroid function in annual wellness blood-work, you might want to measure thyroid hormone. Unfortunately, that is not as sensitive as looking at TSH, the hormone produced by the pituitary to make the thyroid go. And so that’s what physicians do.

So, if you were going to be looking at TSH to gauge whether not you have a hypothyroid or a hyperthyroid state (or a euthyroid state which means normal), then you will look at it like this.

A high TSH means your pituitary has to work harder to get your thyroid to do anything. So high TSH means hypothyroidism. A low TSH conversely means hyperthyroidism. The thyroid is producing thyroid hormone in excess, so it’s telling the pituitary to back off. Low TSH means hyperthyroidism; high TSH means hypothyroidism.

The thyroid gland also produces calcitonin. Its function is to “tone” down calcium levels in the body (I’m afraid the only pneumonic in this topic). It does this by making the calcium move into bones.

So, we end up with less calcium in the blood stream, more calcium in the bones. We should be watching for blood levels of calcium to assess whether not there is a calcitonin problem.

For completeness sake, I should mention that there is an opposing hormone produced by the parathyroid gland (four little glands that live on the thyroid coincidentally) simply called parathyroid hormone that mobilizes calcium from the bones, so increases calcium in the blood stream when it’s needed by destroying bone.

Conclusion

We follow TSH levels in the blood to assess thyroid function even though TSH is a pituitary hormone. We do this because TSH levels are more sensitive to hypo and hyperthyroidism. If the pituitary is producing too much TSH, your thyroid function is diminished.

And that is an important work up that has to be done by endocrinologist. If your annual TSH is low, that means your thyroid is working too hard. That hyperthyroidism needs to be referred to and worked up by an endocrinologist as well.

Either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism must be worked up. It can’t just be blindly treated with extra thyroid hormone for hypo or with drugs that destroy the thyroid

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve my urine flow?
 

Thyroid

Introduction

Under the direct control of the pituitary gland as well as the feedback control from end organs it supplies, the thyroid controls the rate of metabolism. This is a brief discussion that will allow you to loosely understand if not interpret your thyroid blood tests when your physician does annual blood screening for wellness sake.

Disclaimer

When given your blood test results for safekeeping by your physician, never interpret them on your own without a physician’s guidance.

Discussion

There is huge value to having annual blood work that looks for the big killers at least, and many other things that your particular region of the country puts you at risk for. The big killers that we need to look for annually nationwide, regardless of your region, are thyroid disease, diabetes, and cancer.

This discussion just focuses on thyroid disease. The thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary. The pituitary control of it is governed by the master gland, the hypothalamus. All these other topics you should master if you want to get a good handle on your health.

For now, all we will discuss is thyroid function. The thyroid is stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) released by the pituitary in order for the thyroid to function. Then, thyroid hormone goes throughout your body and stimulates tissues. Then, the tissues tell the thyroid and pituitary to back off and function less.

Thyroid function can be excessive for many reasons. Infection, malignancy (cancer), auto immune disease when your body makes antibodies against itself, and incorrect iodine intake are the big ones.

Autoimmune disease means your body has created an antibody that your own tissue receptors respond to. Autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid gland might mean that antibodies your body is making can increase thyroid function or decrease thyroid function.

The hyperthyroidism caused by autoimmune antibodies that your body makes to increase your thyroid function is known as Grave’s disease. Antibodies against the thyroid in Grave’s disease mimic TSH so these antibodies stimulate the thyroid, and excessive thyroid hormone is produced.

Autoimmune disease in which your body produces antibodies that inhibit thyroid production is known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. The antibodies produced in Hashimoto’s disease make the thyroid produce less thyroid hormone, so it’s called hypothyroidism.

Now you might think that if you want to assess thyroid function in annual wellness blood-work, you might want to measure thyroid hormone. Unfortunately, that is not as sensitive as looking at TSH, the hormone produced by the pituitary to make the thyroid go. And so that’s what physicians do.

So, if you were going to be looking at TSH to gauge whether not you have a hypothyroid or a hyperthyroid state (or a euthyroid state which means normal), then you will look at it like this.

A high TSH means your pituitary has to work harder to get your thyroid to do anything. So high TSH means hypothyroidism. A low TSH conversely means hyperthyroidism. The thyroid is producing thyroid hormone in excess, so it’s telling the pituitary to back off. Low TSH means hyperthyroidism; high TSH means hypothyroidism.

The thyroid gland also produces calcitonin. Its function is to “tone” down calcium levels in the body (I’m afraid the only pneumonic in this topic). It does this by making the calcium move into bones.

So, we end up with less calcium in the blood stream, more calcium in the bones. We should be watching for blood levels of calcium to assess whether not there is a calcitonin problem.

For completeness sake, I should mention that there is an opposing hormone produced by the parathyroid gland (four little glands that live on the thyroid coincidentally) simply called parathyroid hormone that mobilizes calcium from the bones, so increases calcium in the blood stream when it’s needed by destroying bone.

Conclusion

We follow TSH levels in the blood to assess thyroid function even though TSH is a pituitary hormone. We do this because TSH levels are more sensitive to hypo and hyperthyroidism. If the pituitary is producing too much TSH, your thyroid function is diminished.

And that is an important work up that has to be done by endocrinologist. If your annual TSH is low, that means your thyroid is working too hard. That hyperthyroidism needs to be referred to and worked up by an endocrinologist as well.

Either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism must be worked up. It can’t just be blindly treated with extra thyroid hormone for hypo or with drugs that destroy the thyroid

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
Am I losing my memory?
 

Stem Cells - Umbilical Vs. Fat

Introduction

Up until now, you have had two big choices for the care of local problems or systemic diseases, drugs and surgery. You now have a new option, regenerative medicine. And, in brief, then includes stem cells for regenerating body tissues and peptides pour up regulating your body’s own growth hormone to cause growth of new tissue and healing. Here, I review stem cells.

The two most growing, popular sources, umbilical and fat extracted, are available to you today. However, nobody understands them. Not even your doctor. That is because they’re new, for one, and big Pharma and the federal government have little interest in you learning about them.

At this point, there are very few sources available to educate a nation, a world, about the rapid advances in what we know about stem cells. I here present a summary, a heads up overview, comparing these two major sources of stem cells.

 Disclaimers

This is solely for the purpose of education. I want to bring you up to speed in 2019. Umbilical donor and fat extracted cells. 

Discussion

There is much mudslinging between these two camps. I am a member of a relatively new, growing camp that wants to use everything available to us in a very customized per patient, yet collaborative between clinicians’ approach.

Clearly, umbilical has its strengths. Clearly, fat stem cells have their strengths. Clearly, the umbilical donor source has its disadvantages. Clearly, the fat extracted source has its disadvantages. And I’ll try to process this in a heads up fashion where possible.

For, every child and adult deserve to receive the benefit of these newly discovered healing cells. Extracted fat stem cells come from a limited reserve. They are limited in that there’s only so many cells in your body to extract.

Further, as we age, they diminish in number and function - although some fat reserves like the love handles, their usage has been so little over the decades that they maybe youthful and plentiful number. And if your stem cells are becoming less and less functional and plentiful as we age, perhaps we should leave them to the body’s purposes as we move into our elder years.

So, as we age, they’re probably a less and less attractive source. But, while you are young, they represent a great source especially if large amounts are required for a use demanding more for better care because there’s no likelihood challenge with higher doses.

Some terrific uses of stem cells do require larger doses. So, in a more is better world (MS, renal failure, pulmonary disorders like COPD, autism), where you want more cells, using your own cells to avoid immune risk at the large numbers of cells required to get a desirable response may be wise.

And perhaps (perhaps) aging stem cells, possibly designed more to pass on also inflammation signals so that nature can accomplish her plan to age us off the planet to make room for her young - perhaps this is yet another reason to avoid using stem cells in the elderly.

Umbilical stem cells in contrast come from an unlimited reserve, donor cells to be cloned ad infinitum. But even if there are no limits in availability of numbers, there are limits here in how many we can use. The downside fee we pay here may be risk of immune rejection from the excessive use in numbers per deployment or numbers of deployments.

As they are not autologous, but rather are allergenic, they are foreign to our body, so there are upper limits how many we can use without triggering immune risk. So, necessarily having to use smaller doses of umbilical source cells may be a factor.

But it will not be a restrictive factor if used non-systemically - knees, penises, tendons. If localized uses require less stem cells because there are only so many receptors for the stem cells to interact with in confined small areas... We may not have a problem.

If the stem cell deployed is a native stem cell as is the case in autologous, fat extracts, their interaction with our tissue cells is direct and surely reproduces what our body would do with its tissues’ own cells. But is the signaling the same for umbilical, allogenic foreign cells from a donor? Does the effect linger with autologous cells? Is there a signal shut down with foreign sourced cells?

So, does one source produce a stronger longer result? Does one produce more of a delayed result because it’s less familiar to the tissue? Time will tell no lies. But anecdotally there seem to be differences. Both share limits in care for two main groups of disorders. Neither extracted stem cells are used in partnering.

Conclusion

Both sources of adult mesenchymal cells are extremely safe, and the feds, in having cleared them, allows us to say this. Both sources work as patient funded investigation is showing. Both have their sweet spots. And although there is still more work, this is not another episode of Jurassic Park.

This is an exciting time to be alive if you’re looking to improve quality of living, treat illness without drugs, or prolong life.

  • Fat extracted: under 60 in general?
  • Systemic diseases that require more numbers for systemic IV deployment?
  • Umbilical: all ages especially over 60?
  • Systemic disease so IV deployment okay but.... Avoid large doses? And autoimmune diseases?

The ones with twitchy self-destructive antibodies - let’s not trigger cascades with too much of our fat extracted cells - and perhaps stick to umbilical? The autoimmune disorders with defenses twitchy to foreign antigens - let’s not use too much umbilical per treatment or over time? And certainly, avoid aged fat stem cell donors to youth hosts unless it’s a last result? And when our hands are really tied for stem cells, rally to...

Peptides to up regulate the body’s own growth hormone signaling locally or systemically for the healing and regeneration that allows? That’s another story!

Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve my MS pain?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my cancer pain?
 

Cryo-Chamber Therapy

Introduction

Everything you ever wanted to know about cryo-chamber therapy, made simple.

Disclosures

While these chambers are available in non-medical practices, make sure you have the clearance if not involvement of your physician as you get this therapy.
 
That said, sadly, many physicians don’t know anything about the value of reducing inflammation in your body, how it makes go away in chronic pain, plus how spectacular it is to athletes in general. But if you don’t have chronic pain, and if you’re not an athlete, well, it’s a wonderful anti-aging modality. So this includes you!
 
You owe it to yourself to try this! It’s available most everywhere, and it’s affordable.

 

Discussion

Cryo-chamber therapy is now available at spas and medical practices for life prolonging, pain controlling, athleticism improving reduction of inflammation. Yes! It’s available and affordable. And it works. How does it work? Briefly…
 
You get in a freezing cold chamber of misted air, cooled by nitrogen gas. It’s usually a three minute process.
 
How does this work? What happens physiologically in cryo-therapy the licensed physician (and non-licensed biohacker - that’s you average Joe!) reading this asks? The portion of your autonomic nervous system known as the sympathetic nervous system devoted to protecting you from any extremes - kicks in. And... Your body goes into flight or flight mode. That is what it does as a defense mechanism. As a result of this, your blood is driven into your core organs to warm them up. There, the blood is oxygenated and enriched with nutrients and cleared of any inflammatory debris.
 
When you step out of the chamber back to room temperature three minutes later, your blood races back out to your extremities. And with this inflow from the cold, and the outflow with re-warming, we are able to eliminate inflammation from your body with repeated cryo-chamber use.
 
Why eliminate inflammation you ask?
 
Inflammation causes pain in cancer and MS patients and most any other inflammatory disease process ranging from diabetes to autoimmune disorders. If inflammation is removed, pain is removed. Most disease processes are inflammatory! So most disease processes will benefit from this. This takes away their pain!
 
Also, inflammation causes decreased nerve function in athletes constantly pushing their bodies, constantly hurting themselves. If inflammation is clocking up your nerves, it will decrease reaction time, decreased performance, decrease work out benefit. Since inflammation is decreased, all athletes will benefit from this. This improves athleticism, recovery times from all hardship, and performance!
 
Thirdly, inflammation causes aging and death and all of us, even if you don’t have chronic pain, even if you’re not an athlete. So, beating inflammation helps everyone.
 
So it’s for chronic pain patients. No I didn’t say it cured cancer. But I did say that it does lower inflammation, so lowers CRPs, so lowers pain in chronic pain patients.
 
And it’s for athletes. No I didn’t say it can make you a better athlete than your God given maximum potential. But it can improve nerve function leading to improved and maximized athleticism.
 
And it’s for everyone. Everyone that doesn’t want to age or die or at least wants increased quality of life, mentally, physically, and spiritually. Inflammation works against all of these things.
 
How long does it last is the most frequently asked question I get. Worst case scenario, two days. In fact, the makers of this would like to see you doing it every other day. Best case scenario, about two weeks. So you could do it that in frequently if that’s all you can afford. Sessions run $50-$60 per three minutes.
 
How often can I do this.
 
is safe to use every day, and many people out west, Beverly Hills, Palm Springs, where there are dozens of these machines per square mile of those cities, receive a cryotherapy session daily.
 
The last question that I wish people would ask more often is why is lowering information important to reducing aging. They get pain reduction in chronic pain patients. They get improved athleticism in athletes because it takes the inflammation away from the nerves, allowing them to react and respond and work out better.
 
How lowering inflammation lowers aging. It’s fascinating. This has been elucidated this past year.
 
Briefly, inflammation in our bodies is instrumental to killing us off. It’s natures plan. And this is how that works...
 
Inflammation as a result of accumulation of natural debris and aging leads to the formation of these odd cells that have been called senescent cells.
 
Senescent cells are like zombie cells. They are neither alive nor dead. On their way to dying, they simply stop dying. They stop in a state that doesn’t let them help the body in it anyway. The stopped state is useless. Except for one thing! It can recruit more cells for this useless state. If your dying cell died, then it would just get out of the way, be replaced by regeneration, be cleaned up, not harmful to anything. And a dead cell - at least it would not continue to recruit a useless death like state - clinically correlated with aging.
 
Bam. Living cells are good. Dying cells that die are good, they can be cleaned up. Regenerated. But these senescent cells that are in a zombie state are dangerous.
 
Just like a zombie. It has no function. It’s not alive. And it should just go on a die. But it requires this ability to not go on and die - currently under much investigation. But, as stated above, it’s more harmful than just being stagnant and in the way. In fact, it can send out signals to cells near it recruiting other cells in it’s creepy campaign to make more cells senescent, and just not die. So... It can actually create more senescent cells. And the more senescent cells there are, the more we age and die.
 
Two things really govern the amount of senescent cells in our body. One is stem cells. The third big function of stem cells that was elucidated just in the last few years is that they clear the body of senescent cells. It’s very exciting. Stem cells make senescent cells go on and die.
 
Another, the main other thing governing senescent cell numbers probably, is the production of senescent cells. And as far as we can tell, the only thing that really produces senescent cells is inflammation.
 
Bam.
 
Thus, it is critical that we reduce inflammation!
 
The other big concept that has really just been elucidated in the past 18 to 24 months of the respected medical literature, is the concept that states that the more we make ourselves look young, fight aging, and thus be healthy by reducing inflammation, the more years we actually live. Now proven! So having an anti-aging, anti-inflammatory approach to life actually prolongs life. We had have long suspected that it did. But in the last several months for literature, we can scientifically say that it does. Yesss!
 

Conclusion

Reduce inflammation! It helps you immediately by lowering pain if you are a chronic pain patient. It improves athleticism Immediately if you’re a healthy athlete like most of us truly are.

 
Further... If not an avid athlete, and you’re not a chronic pain patient, and you’re just an average healthy person…
 
If you reduce inflammation, you will also prolong life.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
What's the most effective way of losing weight?
 

Intermittent Fasting

Introduction

Intermittent fasting is reviewed for the athlete, obesity, and for general longevity in the rest of us alike.

 

Disclaimers

Do not self-administer or prescribe anything reviewed here based on these learning points. Leave this to doctors who have studied this extensively only please. Repeat, this is for educational purposes only.

 

Discussion

Alongside exercise and proper sleeping, it turns out that intermittent fasting is another spectacular, natural thing you can do for your health and to prolong longevity.

Since we evolved like all of the creatures to suffer periods of drought and famine, for us to be able to check in McDonald’s, Pizza, then Chipotle three times a day is completely unnatural.

Heck, we don’t even plant seeds anymore! So, overtime, our metabolism gets messed up in a way that’s a far departure from what it was supposed to be. Intermittent fasting isn’t just a means of caloric restriction. It is a means to resetting your metabolism BACK TO NORMAL.

So, if done properly, it should never be done for more than three months at a time... Like a good drought or famine. You see, it has to mimic a drought or famine. Things we don’t see anymore.

But I’m getting ahead of myself. So that’s why it should work: evolution is probably the best reason to justify anything that makes sense. But how does it work... Ah... Physiology In short, caloric restriction, if done correctly, up regulates stem cells in the GI tract!

The way this occurs at a molecular level is fairly straightforward. Caloric restriction leads to increased oxidative phosphorylation in the G.I. tract cells. This increases beta phosphorylation, so increases the metabolism of fatty acids, making fat the preferential substrate for the energy of those cells.

This not only leads to ketosis as we all know, it optimizes the NAD+/NADH ratio for ideal stem cell function. Optimal stem cell function in terms of ideal quiescence is correlated with optimal health and longevity.

Risks

Probably the biggest high risk group it really shouldn’t be doing intermittent fasting without the close observation of an expert position is a growing population group these days, the bipolar disorder patients, both types one and two.

See, bipolar patients are prone to manic cycling. If they get into a manic episode, you can throw their meds off, and lead to spinning function spirals of chaos and dysfunction. How does intermittent fasting make you manic? Ask anyone who’s ever done it. It leads to ketosis, and that leads to a massive amount of energy for up to a day or so.

That can lead to functional mania in most of us. But in the bipolar patient, it can lead to manic episodes that are usually bad in and of themselves. But it can throw the medicated or unmedicated patient into medication resistance.

Also, manic states can be followed by rebound situations that wind up in severe depression. Not good. Another big risk is doing intermittent fasting incorrectly. So, what are the correct ways of doing intermittent fasting.

The first and most important rule about intermittent fasting is that you should do it under the close guidance of a trained physician. The next most important rule, it is never done for more than 90 days. The pulse nature of this care must be emphasized.

One, it’s not safe to do it for long, no matter how much you fall in love with the ketotic manic highs, the weight loss, the improved athletic performance, the longevity you are buying into.

But two and most important, because it’s designed to mimic times of drought or famine in an organism’s life, and us a resetting of that organisms’ metabolism, it just won’t work if you do it continuously. It must be done; it must be stopped. The honeymoon’s off of it must be for at least a month. And often times for a year.

Again, let your physician decide. And never do a couple of 90 day passes back to back. Never. Dangerous, and it takes with the efficacy of this whole thing. On eating days by the way, breakfast is stressed. And on eating days, only eight hours of eating in general is considered healthy eating on an eating day.

These are general principles that must be followed by anyone who wants to do the best for their health, regardless of intermittent fasting. Please and thank you!

Intermittent Fasting Options

There are three main patterns of calorie restriction to choose from. Probably the least effective, but quite popular, and correct if done safely, is the “2-22” pattern of fasting. The most popular is fasting two days a week. It is more affective than 2-22, but not as effective as the least popular, but the most effective option - fasting five days a month. Yep!

Option #1

2-22 refers to two hours of eating following waking up, yes breakfast, followed by 22 hours of fasting. Fasting means only water and coffee and tea if you drink those. Again, it’s least effective in terms of how much weight you will lose, it’s least effective in terms of how little rebound there will be, like that. But it’s generally very effective. And a very healthy thing to do at least yearly even if you don’t want to just lose weight.

Option #2

More effective is a second option, fasting two days a week. Again, this will be for 90 days only. The two most studied days are Thursdays and Mondays. Water, tea or coffee if you drink these things are allowed. Nothing else on the two fasting days. This produces more effective weight loss, better athletic conditioning, better improvement in sleep cycles, a better reset of metabolism in general than 2-22. And, perhaps not so oddly, it is the most popular intermittent fasting option that has been scientifically proven to help your health and longevity.

Option #3

The most effective option for intermittent fasting is fasting five days out of 30, again, for only 90 days total. Again, only under the guidance of an MD. As absolutely intolerable as that sounds, it is possible, it is safe, and it is done with the best of results. What makes it more tolerable however is to use a diet that tricks the body into thinking it’s fasting for those five days.

A highly respected scientific company called Prolon sells such a multi-patented diet on Amazon. Doctors trained in the administration of intermittent fasting and that diet can sell you that for less $ in their practices usually.

Conclusion

Intermittent fasting is safe, it is for everyone as long as it is done under the guidance of a trained MD, as long as it is done in pulses, as long as you do it for no longer than 90 days while you are doing it ever. All humble opinions here for the purpose of learning.

Do not self administer intermittent fasting without the help of a trained physician. I think I’ve said that enough times!

Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I be thinner?
 

Intermittent Fasting

Introduction

Intermittent fasting is reviewed for the athlete, obesity, and for general longevity in the rest of us alike.

 

Disclaimers

Do not self-administer or prescribe anything reviewed here based on these learning points. Leave this to doctors who have studied this extensively only please. Repeat, this is for educational purposes only.

 

Discussion

Alongside exercise and proper sleeping, it turns out that intermittent fasting is another spectacular, natural thing you can do for your health and to prolong longevity.

Since we evolved like all of the creatures to suffer periods of drought and famine, for us to be able to check in McDonald’s, Pizza, then Chipotle three times a day is completely unnatural.

Heck, we don’t even plant seeds anymore! So, overtime, our metabolism gets messed up in a way that’s a far departure from what it was supposed to be. Intermittent fasting isn’t just a means of caloric restriction. It is a means to resetting your metabolism BACK TO NORMAL.

So, if done properly, it should never be done for more than three months at a time... Like a good drought or famine. You see, it has to mimic a drought or famine. Things we don’t see anymore.

But I’m getting ahead of myself. So that’s why it should work: evolution is probably the best reason to justify anything that makes sense. But how does it work... Ah... Physiology In short, caloric restriction, if done correctly, up regulates stem cells in the GI tract!

The way this occurs at a molecular level is fairly straightforward. Caloric restriction leads to increased oxidative phosphorylation in the G.I. tract cells. This increases beta phosphorylation, so increases the metabolism of fatty acids, making fat the preferential substrate for the energy of those cells.

This not only leads to ketosis as we all know, it optimizes the NAD+/NADH ratio for ideal stem cell function. Optimal stem cell function in terms of ideal quiescence is correlated with optimal health and longevity.

Risks

Probably the biggest high risk group it really shouldn’t be doing intermittent fasting without the close observation of an expert position is a growing population group these days, the bipolar disorder patients, both types one and two.

See, bipolar patients are prone to manic cycling. If they get into a manic episode, you can throw their meds off, and lead to spinning function spirals of chaos and dysfunction. How does intermittent fasting make you manic? Ask anyone who’s ever done it. It leads to ketosis, and that leads to a massive amount of energy for up to a day or so.

That can lead to functional mania in most of us. But in the bipolar patient, it can lead to manic episodes that are usually bad in and of themselves. But it can throw the medicated or unmedicated patient into medication resistance.

Also, manic states can be followed by rebound situations that wind up in severe depression. Not good. Another big risk is doing intermittent fasting incorrectly. So, what are the correct ways of doing intermittent fasting.

The first and most important rule about intermittent fasting is that you should do it under the close guidance of a trained physician. The next most important rule, it is never done for more than 90 days. The pulse nature of this care must be emphasized.

One, it’s not safe to do it for long, no matter how much you fall in love with the ketotic manic highs, the weight loss, the improved athletic performance, the longevity you are buying into.

But two and most important, because it’s designed to mimic times of drought or famine in an organism’s life, and us a resetting of that organisms’ metabolism, it just won’t work if you do it continuously. It must be done; it must be stopped. The honeymoon’s off of it must be for at least a month. And often times for a year.

Again, let your physician decide. And never do a couple of 90 day passes back to back. Never. Dangerous, and it takes with the efficacy of this whole thing. On eating days by the way, breakfast is stressed. And on eating days, only eight hours of eating in general is considered healthy eating on an eating day.

These are general principles that must be followed by anyone who wants to do the best for their health, regardless of intermittent fasting. Please and thank you!

Intermittent Fasting Options

There are three main patterns of calorie restriction to choose from. Probably the least effective, but quite popular, and correct if done safely, is the “2-22” pattern of fasting. The most popular is fasting two days a week. It is more affective than 2-22, but not as effective as the least popular, but the most effective option - fasting five days a month. Yep!

Option #1

2-22 refers to two hours of eating following waking up, yes breakfast, followed by 22 hours of fasting. Fasting means only water and coffee and tea if you drink those. Again, it’s least effective in terms of how much weight you will lose, it’s least effective in terms of how little rebound there will be, like that. But it’s generally very effective. And a very healthy thing to do at least yearly even if you don’t want to just lose weight.

Option #2

More effective is a second option, fasting two days a week. Again, this will be for 90 days only. The two most studied days are Thursdays and Mondays. Water, tea or coffee if you drink these things are allowed. Nothing else on the two fasting days. This produces more effective weight loss, better athletic conditioning, better improvement in sleep cycles, a better reset of metabolism in general than 2-22. And, perhaps not so oddly, it is the most popular intermittent fasting option that has been scientifically proven to help your health and longevity.

Option #3

The most effective option for intermittent fasting is fasting five days out of 30, again, for only 90 days total. Again, only under the guidance of an MD. As absolutely intolerable as that sounds, it is possible, it is safe, and it is done with the best of results. What makes it more tolerable however is to use a diet that tricks the body into thinking it’s fasting for those five days.

A highly respected scientific company called Prolon sells such a multi-patented diet on Amazon. Doctors trained in the administration of intermittent fasting and that diet can sell you that for less $ in their practices usually.

Conclusion

Intermittent fasting is safe, it is for everyone as long as it is done under the guidance of a trained MD, as long as it is done in pulses, as long as you do it for no longer than 90 days while you are doing it ever. All humble opinions here for the purpose of learning.

Do not self administer intermittent fasting without the help of a trained physician. I think I’ve said that enough times!

Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How do I get rid of fat from just my arms " ... thighs "... butt "... neck name q body part except face?
 

Cryo Lipolysis

Introduction

The most salient principles and pearls of lipolysis by the transfer of cold energy, one of the many body sculpting modalities currently available, are reviewed here.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purposes of learning. Please stick to the recommendations of a licensed physician for all body sculpting therapy.

 

Discussion

I know, it’s commonly known that the process of burning fat is called lipolysis.

But did you know that with the best cold therapy techniques or lemonade in fact, there are always a component of heat. Yes, combination therapy is a recurring theme in all body sculpting.

But actually, within the cryo-modality itself alone, there is some heat involved with the best therapies available on the market. More is better. This is one of those universes.

The deeper or longer the burn on the fat, the more persistent the fat burn. Unfortunately, though, deeper burning from severely lower temperatures is producing side effects, some of which are well tolerated, some of which are not.

Moderate speculation here but follow my train of thought. If overly intense cooling is leading to some nodules in some patients that are detected visibly, who’s to say they are not producing more microscopic nodules and patients that aren’t noticed visibly.

Either type of nodule is still a growth, even though it may be a benign growth. Well, see if you can follow this. It is well established and known in medicine that benign growths can become malignant.

So, you make your own conclusions, but the more growths you are producing, nodules and otherwise, microscopic and macroscopic, the more risk there is for malignancy. And that seems to be proving out.

Moore reports of malignancy are being reported with colder temperature therapies. None are being reported with moderate cold therapies.

Conclusion

When it comes to fat burning, we’re Garlist of the modality, everyone in the industry, medical and nonmedical, want to come to aesthetics, we all agree - - it’s all about a sweet spot. If you don’t do enough, you don’t get enough results. If you do too much, there are risks, plus you don’t get results.

That leaves for the purposes of this discussion... The deeper killing produced by longer treatment therapies in safer temperature modalities are producing longer lasting fat killing, probably more effective and definitely safer. And cheaper.

The tolerance of almost any fat loss as it occurs as well as long-term is proving to be dramatically excellent.

 

 
How can I look younger?
 

Stem Cells - Umbilical Vs. Fat

Introduction

Up until now, you have had two big choices for the care of local problems or systemic diseases, drugs and surgery. You now have a new option, regenerative medicine. And, in brief, then includes stem cells for regenerating body tissues and peptides pour up regulating your body’s own growth hormone to cause growth of new tissue and healing. Here, I review stem cells.

The two most growing, popular sources, umbilical and fat extracted, are available to you today. However, nobody understands them. Not even your doctor. That is because they’re new, for one, and big Pharma and the federal government have little interest in you learning about them.

At this point, there are very few sources available to educate a nation, a world, about the rapid advances in what we know about stem cells. I here present a summary, a heads up overview, comparing these two major sources of stem cells.

 Disclaimers

This is solely for the purpose of education. I want to bring you up to speed in 2019. Umbilical donor and fat extracted cells. 

Discussion

There is much mudslinging between these two camps. I am a member of a relatively new, growing camp that wants to use everything available to us in a very customized per patient, yet collaborative between clinicians’ approach.

Clearly, umbilical has its strengths. Clearly, fat stem cells have their strengths. Clearly, the umbilical donor source has its disadvantages. Clearly, the fat extracted source has its disadvantages. And I’ll try to process this in a heads up fashion where possible.

For, every child and adult deserve to receive the benefit of these newly discovered healing cells. Extracted fat stem cells come from a limited reserve. They are limited in that there’s only so many cells in your body to extract.

Further, as we age, they diminish in number and function - although some fat reserves like the love handles, their usage has been so little over the decades that they maybe youthful and plentiful number. And if your stem cells are becoming less and less functional and plentiful as we age, perhaps we should leave them to the body’s purposes as we move into our elder years.

So, as we age, they’re probably a less and less attractive source. But, while you are young, they represent a great source especially if large amounts are required for a use demanding more for better care because there’s no likelihood challenge with higher doses.

Some terrific uses of stem cells do require larger doses. So, in a more is better world (MS, renal failure, pulmonary disorders like COPD, autism), where you want more cells, using your own cells to avoid immune risk at the large numbers of cells required to get a desirable response may be wise.

And perhaps (perhaps) aging stem cells, possibly designed more to pass on also inflammation signals so that nature can accomplish her plan to age us off the planet to make room for her young - perhaps this is yet another reason to avoid using stem cells in the elderly.

Umbilical stem cells in contrast come from an unlimited reserve, donor cells to be cloned ad infinitum. But even if there are no limits in availability of numbers, there are limits here in how many we can use. The downside fee we pay here may be risk of immune rejection from the excessive use in numbers per deployment or numbers of deployments.

As they are not autologous, but rather are allergenic, they are foreign to our body, so there are upper limits how many we can use without triggering immune risk. So, necessarily having to use smaller doses of umbilical source cells may be a factor.

But it will not be a restrictive factor if used non-systemically - knees, penises, tendons. If localized uses require less stem cells because there are only so many receptors for the stem cells to interact with in confined small areas... We may not have a problem.

If the stem cell deployed is a native stem cell as is the case in autologous, fat extracts, their interaction with our tissue cells is direct and surely reproduces what our body would do with its tissues’ own cells. But is the signaling the same for umbilical, allogenic foreign cells from a donor? Does the effect linger with autologous cells? Is there a signal shut down with foreign sourced cells?

So, does one source produce a stronger longer result? Does one produce more of a delayed result because it’s less familiar to the tissue? Time will tell no lies. But anecdotally there seem to be differences. Both share limits in care for two main groups of disorders. Neither extracted stem cells are used in partnering.

Conclusion

Both sources of adult mesenchymal cells are extremely safe, and the feds, in having cleared them, allows us to say this. Both sources work as patient funded investigation is showing. Both have their sweet spots. And although there is still more work, this is not another episode of Jurassic Park.

This is an exciting time to be alive if you’re looking to improve quality of living, treat illness without drugs, or prolong life.

  • Fat extracted: under 60 in general?
  • Systemic diseases that require more numbers for systemic IV deployment?
  • Umbilical: all ages especially over 60?
  • Systemic disease so IV deployment okay but.... Avoid large doses? And autoimmune diseases?

The ones with twitchy self-destructive antibodies - let’s not trigger cascades with too much of our fat extracted cells - and perhaps stick to umbilical? The autoimmune disorders with defenses twitchy to foreign antigens - let’s not use too much umbilical per treatment or over time? And certainly, avoid aged fat stem cell donors to youth hosts unless it’s a last result? And when our hands are really tied for stem cells, rally to...

Peptides to up regulate the body’s own growth hormone signaling locally or systemically for the healing and regeneration that allows? That’s another story!

Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What are the legalities of GH, growth hormone?
 

Growth Hormone & Peptides

Introduction

The basics that will allow you to understand this latest hot topic are presented.

 

Disclaimer

This discussion of the interaction of peptides and your bodies growth hormone levels is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self treat yourself.

 

Discussion

Most of us are aware that the body makes growth hormone (GH; also known as somatotropin). It is made by the pituitary gland, and it has many beneficial effects for the body. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus, goes to the pituitary somatotrophs, where it triggers their release of GH.
 
Cells have receptors for GH. When the GH binds to the cell, it directs the cell’s protein production, both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transcription and all those pathways (normal physiology includes the up regulation of beta oxidation, the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation from the electron transport chain, the up regulation of the Kreb’s cycle production of ATP, and the up regulation of anti-oxidant production), producing healthy proliferation and thus terrific anti-aging effects.
 
Yes, every cell has two genomes, the nuclear genome and the mitochondrial genome, working in concert together to keep the cell healthy. If there is a stressor on that cell, trauma, disease, substrate abuse, the mitochondrial genome falls into disarray and is unable to handle substrate (glucose, fat) correctly. Glucose intolerance occurs. Insulin resistance occurs. Disease advances.
 
Up regulating GH in the body it turns out is extremely healthy. It clearly restores mitochondrial energy creating efficiency in a diseased cell. But it also optimizes it in the seemingly healthy cell that has fallen behind due to the more subtle stressors that have come with age - gravity, exposure, regular wear and tear even.
 
However, if GH is supplemented (and that’s illegal in the US for good reasons that I’ll explain here), it bypasses the body’s feedback mechanisms and can thus inhibit the body‘s natural ability to make GH, and lead to unhealthy situations.
 
So, we stick to the healthy harnessing of increased GH in the body by studying how the body increases GH naturally. And by doing this, we have discovered a lot of things that will increase the body’s ability to increase its own GH, and most of those are allowed. It’s called up-regulating GH, and if done with the guidance of a trained physician, it can lead to great results.
 
Exercise and intermittent fasting are two spectacular things that increase the body’s ability to make its own GH, and are both great anti-aging things to do. We knew that. And that’s why.
 
But there are also substances that safely up regulate GH while not hurting the GH feedback loop, because no exogenous GH has been supplemented. They are classified into two main groups, growth hormone releasing peptides and growth hormone releasing hormones.
 
For an understanding of how these work, you have to understand the basic physiology of GH release.
 
Turns out that (like most hormones) GH is pulsed all day at a rate that is very patient specific... Anywhere from once to six times a day. Release, recover. Release, recover. Usually a three hour window before it’s potential for release is once again allowed. All governed by GHRH pulses. Meanwhile, simultaneously, there is a constant inhibitory signal from somatostatin on the somatotrophs preventing GH release. Somatostatin has to allow GH release. The every three hours window as stated - the somatotrophs have the potential to release GH.
 
GH releasing peptides (GHRP’s) up regulate GH release in a different way from GH releasing hormones (GHRH’s).
 
GHRH’s up the machinery for improved GH release. GHRP’s inhibit somatostatin to allow GH release.
 
We can supplement GHRH’s, multiple are federally approved and on the market (Sermorelin, modified CJC12195...). We can supplement GHRP’s (modified 129, others) - multiple are federally approved and on the market.
 
So you get it. GH that the body makes has beneficial effects. If increased, we can better those effects. Can we do more than exercise and intermittent fasting to up regulate our bodies on production of endogenous GH? Yes.
 
Our bodies produce less and less GH as we age. But the body, the cell, of a 90-year-old still has the exact same potential to produce the GH as that of a young adult! We just have to turn that cell on.
 
With the peptides that up regulate GH, so, with GH, we are trying to up regulate/return the body back to a physiologic state. We are not going for supra-physiologic status.
 
We are trying to get the cell into a homeostatic pattern of living. This is not homeopathic medicine. Please keep those two terms distinctly separate and unequal.
 
And this resetting of cellular state we hope will be somewhat permanent in its ability to better handle substrates, glucose, fat, until it falls into disarray again.
 
It’s a return to cellular efficiency - with regards to handling substrates above all - for as long as possible, per tuneup. This up regulating of substrate handling capacity occurs of course in the mitochondria.
 
The cell had fallen into a state of disarray and poor mitochondrial function due to some stressor. So the GH upping peptide fix may not be permanent, assuming another stressor may come along.
 
And one of the beauties of all this is that these peptides don’t have to be devised or invented like drugs or artificial manipulations that have fascinated big Pharma for decades. They just have to be found. Correct. Right here. In our own bodies. And they are indeed all found in the body. We are simply looking to see what the body does to make its own GH.
 
How GH Produces Benefits
 
GH produces its benefits by increasing insulin like growth factor one (IGF-1).
 
Briefly, cells have GH receptors. Some cells have GHRH receptors and GHRP receptors on the same cell. Many cells have IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1 is mainly made by certain cells that are up regulated by GH).
 
GH, in general, binds to a cell and improves cell function, makes cells take in glucose, etc. (note: increasing glucose tolerance, decreasing insulin resistance!), and increases cell proliferation. And GH increases IGF-1.
 
IGF-1 is a protein hormone that provides the negative feedback mechanism to GH.
 
IGF-1 also leads to up-regulating of cell activity, also leads to an increase in growth and proliferation like GH, but there is also differentiation that occurs with IGF-1.
 
And IGF-1 is also about cell survival.
 
Since IGF-1 is about differentiation and cell survival, IGF-1 does things to protect cells from apoptosis.
 
There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins. The mitochondria, powerhouses of the cell, decide whether or not the cell is going to go into apoptosis or not. Mitochondria contain the DNA to produce the proteins that govern this. There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins it turns out that work in a see-saw relation deciding for or against apoptosis, depending on the balance they are shifted.
 
But there’s two more requirements that makes this whole system really work. One, there must be a stressor. In the case of muscles, it’s exercise. Brain: using it. Like that. It’s an ongoing oxidative stressor that the tissue requires to grow or maintain youth or undo damage so you’re not just firing peptides at it. Two, the stressor must be pulsatile. Again, using muscles as an example, if you were to exercise every day without recovery, the cell machinery’s receptors are going to become refractory to the peptide signal. The recovery allows the muscle a chance to rest. Without recovery, it’s going to break down. And that’s only part of the disease or inflammatory aging problem.
 
 
Risks
 
Harmful effects of excess GH come from excessive exogenous GH inhibiting the body’s own production of its own GH. So exogenous GH is understandably illegal - unless a person has a condition reducing their body’s ability to respond to GH (AIDS patients on anti-retroviral drugs that have this effect on GH metabolism) or a person has a condition in which GH is not manufactured correctly (GH deficiency or GHD).
 
Harmful effects of excessive GH up-regulating come from excessive receptor stimulation, leading to receptor shut down. Not a good condition either. So as GH up-regulation using peptides is completely legal, it should only be conducted by physicians thoroughly trained in these therapies.
 
So for example, if a receptor for GH in the brain is overly up-regulated, the receptor can shut down. A nice for instance is a peptide that is used for up regulating GH in muscles - MK0677, an oral GHRP. Well, it helps the muscles grow the more it’s used. However, once you hit a certain dose of it, it begins to oversaturate an anxiety (and fear) controlling GH receptor in the brain in a matter that shuts it down. Right. That’ss... Bad. Remember, it takes a great deal of time for this to occur, and a great deal of neglect. But it is a risk. So there are time use limits.
 
Also, the excessive up regulation of any beneficial peptide producing a sweet spot of returning a stressed or diseased cell to ideal physiologic homeostasis could lead to an overdrive of mitochondrial or nuclear genomic machinery, creating excessive free radicals. This could lead to shut down of portions of the electron transport chain with in the mitochondria. A lack of rest from such an overdrive from such an excess of a peptide is where problems are seen. The cell can only do so much for so long. And for every cytochrome that is shut down in the mitochondria and not producing electron transport any longer, there is less ATP made. With decreased ATP production, you have decreased the efficiency of the mitochondria. Doesn’t sound like a bad harm, but it’s also undesirable, and not what the goal was in the first place with peptide up regulation of GH - creating an ideal sweet spot of homeopathy. Overwhelming the cells of a tissue obviously lead to cell death, fibrosis, and organ dysfunction.
 
Really the only other downside to peptides - side effects of the metabolites of peptides - is exhaustively prevented by this growing industry because they study the potential molecules fragments of the naturally occurring peptide or synthetic peptides being administered more exhaustively than any drugs that have ever been rolled out before. But these peptides are already so small to begin with, that their even smaller degradation products, always carefully studied, are well tolerated and cleared without any side effects.

 

Conclusion

So, GH is good for our cells - it produces an anti-aging effect, it helps memory.
 
However, the FDA specifically forbids use of GH in adults in anti-aging except in AIDS (anti-AIDS medications like anti-retrovirals hurt the body’s GH response so these folks need exogenous GH) or human growth hormone deficiency (GHD).
 
So, we can make the body make more of its own GH (up-regulate) by using peptides, intermittent fasting, and exercise. This is completely allowed. And it is completely safe, because the feedback mechanisms are all kept intact (there isn’t any exogenous GH suppressing GH production).
 
The only real risk of up regulating the body’s own GH is over driving the cell beyond what it can physiologically do into shut down.
 
It’s the same old simple but valuable theme seen in so much anti-aging and regenerative medicine: find the sweet spot.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I increase growth hormone?
 

Growth Hormone & Peptides

Introduction

The basics that will allow you to understand this latest hot topic are presented.

 

Disclaimer

This discussion of the interaction of peptides and your bodies growth hormone levels is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self treat yourself.

 

Discussion

Most of us are aware that the body makes growth hormone (GH; also known as somatotropin). It is made by the pituitary gland, and it has many beneficial effects for the body. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus, goes to the pituitary somatotrophs, where it triggers their release of GH.
 
Cells have receptors for GH. When the GH binds to the cell, it directs the cell’s protein production, both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transcription and all those pathways (normal physiology includes the up regulation of beta oxidation, the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation from the electron transport chain, the up regulation of the Kreb’s cycle production of ATP, and the up regulation of anti-oxidant production), producing healthy proliferation and thus terrific anti-aging effects.
 
Yes, every cell has two genomes, the nuclear genome and the mitochondrial genome, working in concert together to keep the cell healthy. If there is a stressor on that cell, trauma, disease, substrate abuse, the mitochondrial genome falls into disarray and is unable to handle substrate (glucose, fat) correctly. Glucose intolerance occurs. Insulin resistance occurs. Disease advances.
 
Up regulating GH in the body it turns out is extremely healthy. It clearly restores mitochondrial energy creating efficiency in a diseased cell. But it also optimizes it in the seemingly healthy cell that has fallen behind due to the more subtle stressors that have come with age - gravity, exposure, regular wear and tear even.
 
However, if GH is supplemented (and that’s illegal in the US for good reasons that I’ll explain here), it bypasses the body’s feedback mechanisms and can thus inhibit the body‘s natural ability to make GH, and lead to unhealthy situations.
 
So, we stick to the healthy harnessing of increased GH in the body by studying how the body increases GH naturally. And by doing this, we have discovered a lot of things that will increase the body’s ability to increase its own GH, and most of those are allowed. It’s called up-regulating GH, and if done with the guidance of a trained physician, it can lead to great results.
 
Exercise and intermittent fasting are two spectacular things that increase the body’s ability to make its own GH, and are both great anti-aging things to do. We knew that. And that’s why.
 
But there are also substances that safely up regulate GH while not hurting the GH feedback loop, because no exogenous GH has been supplemented. They are classified into two main groups, growth hormone releasing peptides and growth hormone releasing hormones.
 
For an understanding of how these work, you have to understand the basic physiology of GH release.
 
Turns out that (like most hormones) GH is pulsed all day at a rate that is very patient specific... Anywhere from once to six times a day. Release, recover. Release, recover. Usually a three hour window before it’s potential for release is once again allowed. All governed by GHRH pulses. Meanwhile, simultaneously, there is a constant inhibitory signal from somatostatin on the somatotrophs preventing GH release. Somatostatin has to allow GH release. The every three hours window as stated - the somatotrophs have the potential to release GH.
 
GH releasing peptides (GHRP’s) up regulate GH release in a different way from GH releasing hormones (GHRH’s).
 
GHRH’s up the machinery for improved GH release. GHRP’s inhibit somatostatin to allow GH release.
 
We can supplement GHRH’s, multiple are federally approved and on the market (Sermorelin, modified CJC12195...). We can supplement GHRP’s (modified 129, others) - multiple are federally approved and on the market.
 
So you get it. GH that the body makes has beneficial effects. If increased, we can better those effects. Can we do more than exercise and intermittent fasting to up regulate our bodies on production of endogenous GH? Yes.
 
Our bodies produce less and less GH as we age. But the body, the cell, of a 90-year-old still has the exact same potential to produce the GH as that of a young adult! We just have to turn that cell on.
 
With the peptides that up regulate GH, so, with GH, we are trying to up regulate/return the body back to a physiologic state. We are not going for supra-physiologic status.
 
We are trying to get the cell into a homeostatic pattern of living. This is not homeopathic medicine. Please keep those two terms distinctly separate and unequal.
 
And this resetting of cellular state we hope will be somewhat permanent in its ability to better handle substrates, glucose, fat, until it falls into disarray again.
 
It’s a return to cellular efficiency - with regards to handling substrates above all - for as long as possible, per tuneup. This up regulating of substrate handling capacity occurs of course in the mitochondria.
 
The cell had fallen into a state of disarray and poor mitochondrial function due to some stressor. So the GH upping peptide fix may not be permanent, assuming another stressor may come along.
 
And one of the beauties of all this is that these peptides don’t have to be devised or invented like drugs or artificial manipulations that have fascinated big Pharma for decades. They just have to be found. Correct. Right here. In our own bodies. And they are indeed all found in the body. We are simply looking to see what the body does to make its own GH.
 
How GH Produces Benefits
 
GH produces its benefits by increasing insulin like growth factor one (IGF-1).
 
Briefly, cells have GH receptors. Some cells have GHRH receptors and GHRP receptors on the same cell. Many cells have IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1 is mainly made by certain cells that are up regulated by GH).
 
GH, in general, binds to a cell and improves cell function, makes cells take in glucose, etc. (note: increasing glucose tolerance, decreasing insulin resistance!), and increases cell proliferation. And GH increases IGF-1.
 
IGF-1 is a protein hormone that provides the negative feedback mechanism to GH.
 
IGF-1 also leads to up-regulating of cell activity, also leads to an increase in growth and proliferation like GH, but there is also differentiation that occurs with IGF-1.
 
And IGF-1 is also about cell survival.
 
Since IGF-1 is about differentiation and cell survival, IGF-1 does things to protect cells from apoptosis.
 
There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins. The mitochondria, powerhouses of the cell, decide whether or not the cell is going to go into apoptosis or not. Mitochondria contain the DNA to produce the proteins that govern this. There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins it turns out that work in a see-saw relation deciding for or against apoptosis, depending on the balance they are shifted.
 
But there’s two more requirements that makes this whole system really work. One, there must be a stressor. In the case of muscles, it’s exercise. Brain: using it. Like that. It’s an ongoing oxidative stressor that the tissue requires to grow or maintain youth or undo damage so you’re not just firing peptides at it. Two, the stressor must be pulsatile. Again, using muscles as an example, if you were to exercise every day without recovery, the cell machinery’s receptors are going to become refractory to the peptide signal. The recovery allows the muscle a chance to rest. Without recovery, it’s going to break down. And that’s only part of the disease or inflammatory aging problem.
 
 
Risks
 
Harmful effects of excess GH come from excessive exogenous GH inhibiting the body’s own production of its own GH. So exogenous GH is understandably illegal - unless a person has a condition reducing their body’s ability to respond to GH (AIDS patients on anti-retroviral drugs that have this effect on GH metabolism) or a person has a condition in which GH is not manufactured correctly (GH deficiency or GHD).
 
Harmful effects of excessive GH up-regulating come from excessive receptor stimulation, leading to receptor shut down. Not a good condition either. So as GH up-regulation using peptides is completely legal, it should only be conducted by physicians thoroughly trained in these therapies.
 
So for example, if a receptor for GH in the brain is overly up-regulated, the receptor can shut down. A nice for instance is a peptide that is used for up regulating GH in muscles - MK0677, an oral GHRP. Well, it helps the muscles grow the more it’s used. However, once you hit a certain dose of it, it begins to oversaturate an anxiety (and fear) controlling GH receptor in the brain in a matter that shuts it down. Right. That’ss... Bad. Remember, it takes a great deal of time for this to occur, and a great deal of neglect. But it is a risk. So there are time use limits.
 
Also, the excessive up regulation of any beneficial peptide producing a sweet spot of returning a stressed or diseased cell to ideal physiologic homeostasis could lead to an overdrive of mitochondrial or nuclear genomic machinery, creating excessive free radicals. This could lead to shut down of portions of the electron transport chain with in the mitochondria. A lack of rest from such an overdrive from such an excess of a peptide is where problems are seen. The cell can only do so much for so long. And for every cytochrome that is shut down in the mitochondria and not producing electron transport any longer, there is less ATP made. With decreased ATP production, you have decreased the efficiency of the mitochondria. Doesn’t sound like a bad harm, but it’s also undesirable, and not what the goal was in the first place with peptide up regulation of GH - creating an ideal sweet spot of homeopathy. Overwhelming the cells of a tissue obviously lead to cell death, fibrosis, and organ dysfunction.
 
Really the only other downside to peptides - side effects of the metabolites of peptides - is exhaustively prevented by this growing industry because they study the potential molecules fragments of the naturally occurring peptide or synthetic peptides being administered more exhaustively than any drugs that have ever been rolled out before. But these peptides are already so small to begin with, that their even smaller degradation products, always carefully studied, are well tolerated and cleared without any side effects.

 

Conclusion

So, GH is good for our cells - it produces an anti-aging effect, it helps memory.
 
However, the FDA specifically forbids use of GH in adults in anti-aging except in AIDS (anti-AIDS medications like anti-retrovirals hurt the body’s GH response so these folks need exogenous GH) or human growth hormone deficiency (GHD).
 
So, we can make the body make more of its own GH (up-regulate) by using peptides, intermittent fasting, and exercise. This is completely allowed. And it is completely safe, because the feedback mechanisms are all kept intact (there isn’t any exogenous GH suppressing GH production).
 
The only real risk of up regulating the body’s own GH is over driving the cell beyond what it can physiologically do into shut down.
 
It’s the same old simple but valuable theme seen in so much anti-aging and regenerative medicine: find the sweet spot.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
What can I do about hair loss?
 

PRP: A Source of Growth Factors for Rejuvenation and Restoration

Introduction

Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is rapidly rising as a source of growth factors to help in many clinical situations. Only an absolute basic few principles are reviewed here.

 

Disclaimers

The big disclaimer in this walk through of PRP today is that it is ultra-minimal. There are distributors and scientific reviews that are much more comprehensive than this. But this should give you a good overview to start out on understanding a safe treatment option available to you instead of so many dangerous surgeries and dirty medicines for so many things.

 

Discussion

PRP, platelet rich plasma from you, contains platelets. Platelets are little sacks of growth factors, similar to cells, but contain no nuclear material - - no nuclei at all.

So, if there is no nucleus in a platelet, it contains all of these growth factors, but doesn’t know exactly what to do with them. The platelet instinctively goes to areas of inflammation and wounds to help heal wounds and resolve inflammation. But it must get instructions there.

Cells that are healthy locally can give it instructions. The wound has ailing cells that can give it instructions. And stem cells are probably the best “computers” in the body that can give platelets instructions. So, I guess that’s one of the big take-home’s: PRP works best if there is an abundance of high-quality stem cells nearby.

Conversely, PRP doesn’t work well if there’s not many stem cells. One situation in which there are not many stem cells is aging. As we age, our stem cell numbers and quality decreases.

So, the extrapolation is, you guessed it: PRP does not work well in the elderly. So, if an elderly person is considering PRP for its many indications, many of which are reviewed below (and I know that’s why you’re probably reading this) (so, we’re almost there!), then that elderly person might higher prioritize getting some stem cells on board first.

Another situation where PRP won’t work by itself no matter how many times you try it (John Wall) is in the joint, which is highly nonvascular, so often times doesn’t contain many stem cells.

Such an athlete might consider getting stem cells first which will last in their body 30 months including deployments directly into a knee… And then administer some PRP if you want.

But many scientific journals are pointing to the fact that all things like knees need is stem cells alone without the PRP. But that’s another subject. So, I’ll repeat this first big principal and all its repercussions: PRP requires stem cells to work. PRP will work better in young people than elderly. PRP will work better in people who have received stem cells recently. PRP will work better in people who receive stem cells concurrently, although many argue that the stem cells alone would suffice in that setting. PRP won’t work in avascular areas where there are not many stem cells like joints. PRP is obtained using PRP kits provided by many distributors in the US and Canada. PRP is extracted from venous blood - - just a regular blood draw folks.

So, when we talk about giving you PRP, we are giving you back platelets we pulled out of you, same day, usually same hour. Different PRP kits very in quality, and I’m not saying it isn’t always high-quality and safe. It pretty much is. PRP kits vary in how much white cells that they contain as if it was a strength, and I’m not saying that it always isn’t. And PRP varies in platelet concentration. And PRP kits vary in terms of whether they are activated or not. A source of some confusion to the novice, PRP also varies in activated versus non-activated.

This is a much more important distinction you must understand - - and it’s easy. Activated PRP (activated for their prime function to help a damaged area of tissue) means that the platelets have been exposed to calcium salts such as in an active wound where cells are exploding and dumping out calcium salts.

If platelets are exposed to calcium, they start working, and quickly - - they start getting sticky, leading to the formation of a fibrin clot – and that’s what a wound needs. The other thing that happens when the platelet starts getting sticky and Jell-O like instead of free-flowing is that they stay around.

That is, they don’t migrate off. So, activation when it comes to PRP means formation of fiber matrix. So, some people would rather not worry about that fiber matrix with the PRP they are using. And they use other scaffolding or matrix sources, some of them allogenic, a term that literally means from a non-homologous source, i.e., from someone else.

Some clinical situations have enough inflammation and activity from cell death that the platelets will be activated when they get into the body part. In those situations, they don’t need to be activated. The body will activate them. What do you like it or not, that activated PRP will stick around in that area?

In other clinical situations, there is no cell break down, and you want the PRP to stick around. So, you have to activate that PRP before administering it. Usually exposing it to a calcium salt like calcium chloride or cost include gluconate activates the PRP.

The PRP is deployed; the PRP sticks around that area. And yet other clinical situations, there is no cell break down and you DON’T want the PRP to stick around locally. You were interested it and it is defusing a little further away.

Growth factors to encourage hair regeneration require this. So, two more big principles.

  1. PRP should be activated to keep locally (not for hair) (not for the P shot) (not for the O shot). In all of the situations, you don’t want to keep the PRP local. You want it to spread to the surrounding tissues.
  2. If there is inflammation, you will want the PRP to stick around. But the bar is inflammation will activate the PRP, so it doesn’t need to be activated.

Whether or not to activate the PRP that’s about to be used as important because as soon as you activated before deployment, you have a ticking clock. The stuff thickens very quickly, and it makes it harder and harder to administer by the minute after activation has been done outside the body in those situations that require it. And there is another distinguishing feature of PRP types.

You can have a high density concentration, or you can have a low density concentration of platelets. Depending on how the PRP is mixed. Not all that significant as far as I can tell.

After all, when you get your blood drawn for your PRP, your quantity of platelets is going to vary day to day depending on so many factors. Luck of the draw really. Ha. Pun intended. Indications for PRP Joints, Tendons, Ligaments Hair, Skin problems Sexual function, so for the Penis it’s the P shot. The O shot in women Inflamed joints, arthritis, the situations benefit from PRP. But many argue that when it comes to joints, all you really need is stem cells. I’m going defer discussion on this.

Hair

You might think with no inflammation or active wound; we might want to activate the PRP before deployment. But, no. The PRP should not be activated and that’s so it can spread around. It will activate in the body soon enough.

The deployment is extremely superficial, just a couple of millimeters. And it’s leading to great things. Again, stem cells will be required for the PRP to help a man or woman regenerate hair or prevent hair loss.

So, strongly consider investing in stem cells first, then PRP second if you are trying to regenerate tissue is the alopecia arena. The P shot with PRP, done in conjunction with shockwave therapy, is dramatically helping erectile dysfunction, as well as Peyronie’s disease and other rarer indications.

The P shot, which is actually several shots along the shaft and glans of the penis, in conjunction with an increase vascularity treated with shockwave therapy, is leading to maximizing penile function not only severely impaired men, but even in fairly normal men. The results have been spectacular. We are just beginning to see the safe care effects in this strong indication for PRP.

The “O” shot with PRP, which is actually two shots, one to the Skinners gland, and one elsewhere (different discussion on that) is helping with dyspareunia and lichen sclerosis, two serious conditions which affect women’s sexual health. But it is also helping much more healthy women increase general pubis color (consistent with increasing blood vessels there), thus leading to increased sensitivity during intercourse.

So... Exciting advances in both of these arenas, in the highly unfortunate clinically ill, as well as the nearly healthy trying to optimize or improve an already fairly healthy sexual system. PRP is truly helping a lot of couples.

 

Conclusion

So, we begin to see a general principle that recurs again and again in all considerations of regenerative medicine. It is that you need growth factors from things like PRP, and you need guiding computer-like agents - - things like stem cells, and you need a matrix or scaffolding on which regeneration (some still call it healing, but that’s probably not entirely correct) can occur.

PRP, so rich in platelets required for the traditional clotting of wounds, is going to be filled with growth factors. That’s really all they bring to the table. Pretty simple.

And if you want your PRP growth factors to remain in the area of the deployment sustained for days instead of hours, you think of activating the PRP before deployment.

If you in contrast prefer that the PRP defuse to the surrounding tissues for your particular application like hair maintenance and regeneration, you avoid pre-activation, so as to allow PRP to diffuse, and then the fiber matrix is created by the body later when it activates the PRP in a slower fashion allowing spread to more remote areas from the site of deployment.

 
What can I do about erectile dysfunction?
 

Erectile Dysfunctions

Disclaimer 
This is for educational purposes only. It’s healthy to know how you work. If you were having problems, please seek the direct consultation of a qualified, licensed physician. 

Erectile function 

A basic understanding of erectile function is a prerequisite to reviewing erectile function. For this, you must understand the phases of erectile function. 

Oversimplifying of course, you get an erection (or you don’t; or its poor angle prevents penetration); your erection persists (or it doesn’t); and you get a satisfactory ejaculation (or you don’t; the least of your concerns if you haven’t penetrated your partner in years because of injury or illness or just lack of use). 

Different men are trying to achieve different abilities with each of these three phases. So, as long as the physician and the patient work as a team, and as long as I get couples to expect less and enjoy more, well, I have found that I have never produced dissolution for anybody with care I have provided. 

Anyway, back to function. First phase, the formation of an erection, is based on cavernous sinuses of the penis filling with blood. Thus, first phase depends on inflow. The second phase of erection is persistence. Persistence depends on those veins that you see outside of the penis. The more those things are developed, in number, size, and amount in general, the more the tunica albuginea can distort them. The more the tunica albuginea can distort them, more persistent an erection. Thus, second phase depends on outflow. 

The distinction of inflow and outflow, of erection in contrast to persistence, and then in turn the important contrast of erection and ejaculation, are all important distinctions because things that help the two phases of erection may hurt ejaculation. Drugs for example that contribute to erection formation like Viagra actually can make ejaculation less satisfying at higher doses. Hence, everyone’s interest in lowering the doses of drugs in general... Side effects... Is here key. 

This brings up another point. Some people try to promote persistence of erections with drugs like Viagra. That is not a good strategy, as you now understand. Again, just to be clear, Viagra is good for you getting an erection. Not so good for maintaining an erection, and even working against you when it comes to producing satisfying ejaculation. 

Back to nervous system control of male sexual function, the parasympathetic system generally governs erection, the sympathetic nervous system governs ejaculation. P and S. Point and Shoot was the old pneumonic we always used to remember Parasympathetic and Sympathetic for erection and ejaculation, respectively. 


The spectrum of erectile dysfunction 

Even at a day to day level, normal males will experience fluctuations in erectile function that range from sub-par ability to frank dysfunction. Psychogenic and stress factors may also affect the nervous system’s control of erectile function thus also altering parasympathetic and sympathetic function. 

Heck, even eating affects erectile function. If your gut is full of blood digesting your food, less is going to get into your penis. There’s also dilution effect from a belly full of food on erection producing medications like Viagra. Most of these patients are aware of these limitations, and take such medicine on a more empty stomach to have the first phase of erection go better when they are in use. 

Psychogenic causes of erectile dysfunction are famous. Yes, even marriage causes erectile dysfunction according to some studies. But the first step... All organic illness must be entertained and aggressively ruled out. 

Yeah, the frank erectile dysfunction diseases and disorders. The causes of erectile dysfunction are worth keeping in mind, because every man that has had sexual difficulty may begin to wonder at some point or another, maybe this isn’t something normal. Or even psych. 

I think the mindful, intelligent, modern patient or the patient’s partner is really trying to ask, could my male partner have a “real” problem. This has many implications. Do they have a problem, or is this something I’m doing wrong; or the partner might entertain this possibility. If the “I’m doing something wrong“ is the issue, then that may need some attention. ASAP (any degree of her launch just use produces erectile dysfunction!). And these are all thoughts in a spectrum of healthy speculation, as long as expert physicians are kept involved, as long as care Is being attempted simultaneously to get function back to the junction while the work is underway, and the process remains a team effort designed to produce results - - and no one gets hung up on inner conflicts. But... 

If they indeed have a problem, then certainly the problem should be found and fixed. Could be a primary organic problem. Or it could be a secondary symptoms of another primary disorder that MUST be found (Instead of just masking that this order by treating the erectile dysfunction in and of itself). In other words, maybe erectile dysfunction is just a symptom something larger that should be addressed. Yes, one fairly important symptom. But a bigger problem needs to be fixed like diabetes or something. So, segue... And on to the problems that cause it. 

Yes, diabetes is a big cause. There are precursors to diabetes, pre-diabetic states if you will, including “metabolic syndrome” which is the number one cause of erectile dysfunction in this country. 

So if a physician is providing good care, all of the organic possibilities like diabetes and prediabetes including metabolic syndrome must be ruled out as care is entertained with exciting new treatments like shockwave therapy. And PRP. 

Another big cause of erectile dysfunction is something called Peyronie’s disease. It is a plaque or a pebble in the shaft of the penis. It causes the penis to tilt, making penetration complicated and difficult. 

That induration or plaque or pebble is scar tissue developing on the tunica albaginia. See below under question 4 for the significance of the tunica albaginia. 

So, pre-diabetes syndromes, including metabolic syndrome, and of course anatomic problems, including birth defects and Peyronie’s disease - - all leading causes of erectile dysfunction. 

Just about any other of the major chronic diseases can cause erectile dysfunction. 

Yer another entire class of dysfunction is vascular-genic dysfunction; 80% of all erectile dysfunction has a component of this in some estimates. That is, calcium deposits in the blood vessels can lead to vascular obstruction and reduced function. Hence, the response to medications like verapamil (see below). 

Radiation therapy destroys cells releasing platelet activating calcium, calcifying blood vessels harmfully as well. This produces erectile dysfunction quickly, and care should be started as early as possible in this setting for best treatment response. Many start the safest form of erectile dysfunction care, shockwave therapy (see below), right away in this setting knowing that such vasoactive erectile function is likely coming soon. 

Prostatectomy. An obvious cause of erectile dysfunction. 

Neurogenic lesions in the spine like in multiple sclerosis affect the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous function of erectile function (recall the “Point and Shoot” pneumonic, parasympathetic P governs Point, erection - - Sympathetic governs Shoot, ejaculation). 

Endocrine including low testosterone levels produces 10% Of the population of reduced function males. Hence, there’s not much to be gained by supplements. Plus the ever looming threat of suppressing your own body’s testosterone production by supplementing testosterone... Making testosterone supplements likely to produce yet another cause of erectile dysfunction when that notorious feedback loop goes awry. 

Pharmacologic destruction of erectile function, another obvious cause. NSAIDS are a big problem. Daily Advil or Aleve users or any of the cousins these drugs. Stop! It’s hurting your erectile function. 

Any of the CNS depressants... So, benzodiazepines, of course... But the depressant list goes on and on. SSRI’s (used for premature ejaculation and depression) and beta blockers can adversely affect erectile function (Although one interesting beta blocker, Bystolic, actually contributes to nitric oxide formation, improving erection formation - - so, a nice choice with a patient that wants to control blood pressure risks while improving erectile function.) 

And in the Venn diagram of things, there’s a great overlap amongst the different types of disorders that contribute to erectile dysfunction. 


Treatment 

In as much as the normal male can thus experience suboptimal erectile function, the normal male can strive to optimize erectile ability with different safe lifestyle practices and therapies. 

I like to think beyond hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which can be safe. There’s so, so much more! 

Lifestyle optimizations include maintaining a healthy weight, eating correctly, working out regularly, not participating in any regular substance abuse including alcohol, smoking, and marijuana. 

Penile injections, implants, pumps, PDI inhibitors - - all of these address erection formation. They produce little improvement in erection persistence. For that, we turn to anatomy boosting therapies, many of which do not even require drugs. 

Such therapies include shockwave, acoustic therapy (like GainsWave). The regimen involves a start up 6-12 sessions, followed by a yearly maintenance session. No drugs involved here. Just angiogenesis that is actually stimulated - - a revascularization of the veins of the shaft of the penis to maximize the persistence of erection. So much is written and spoken about returning function to the junction. Just regular sexual activity promotes lift off as well as persistence. And I am a big advocate of that. But what really is effective is getting the maximum anatomy back to the junction. That in turn leads in and of itself to ideal function in the junction today, and preserves it for decades of fullest function use. 

Since many causes of erectile disfunction stem from vasoactive dysfunction secondary to calcium deposition and secondary vascular dysfunction, calcium channel blockers like verapamil can work nicely. Atropine is another pharmacologic agent that can promote erection formation, thereby someone palliate erectile dysfunction. 

Continuing on the vascular campaign to remediate erectile dysfunction… One of the many procedures that help with vascular problems that wreck erectile dysfunction, clever surgery exists where a branch of the epigastric artery is brought down to the dorsal artery of the penis, allowing for better cavernous sinus filling, and hence improved erection formation. 

There are even ligaments that can be safely ligated, even in the B minus player, to prolong the penis, and thereby improve performance that way. 

For clinical situations where there is more extensive pathology to overcome, other surgery exists where a flexible filler rod is implanted into the cavernous sinuses. 9 out of 10 men get great satisfaction and response from this. 1 of 10 - - a very bad situation. Not only is it not effective in this unfortunate small group, but once the cavernous sinuses have been destroyed in this manner, sexual function may be very much adversely affected, to say the least. Bottom line, you need to know the risks. 


Conclusion 

There are many treatment options to shockwave for erectile dysfunction. 

Fixing the underlying problem like diabetes or metabolic disorder or anatomical disturbances or psychological problems is the most important first step in the treatment plan when there’s actual erectile dysfunction disease or disorder. 

Since a large portion of these pathological processes have a vasoactive underlying dysfunction, it stands to reason that vascular stabilizing medications like the calcium channel blocker‘s including forever no would help. And this is indeed the case. 

But living healthy is your best bet for maintaining optimal erectile function. 

Keeping sexually active is also key. 

And for therapies, avoid drugs, avoid surgeries... When you can, of course. The side effects are worth knowing and are in general strongly prohibitive. Move along... 

And strongly consider shockwave therapy - - super effective, and above all, safe. 

Stay good. And... Stay well. 

David Allingham, MD, MS

 
What can my husband do about erectile dysfunction?
 

Peyronie's Disease

[vc_section][vc_row][vc_column width="1/2"][vc_column_text]

Cryo Body Doc

David Allingham, MD, MS

Medical Aesthetics located in Oakton, VA

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][vc_column width="1/2"][vc_column_text]Peyronie’s disease affects up to 23% of American men, although these figures are estimates as many men do not seek treatment for this uncomfortable condition. If your penis bends unnaturally causing you pain and disrupting your sex life, make an appointment with David Allingham, MD, MS at Cryo Body Doc in Oakton, Virginia. Dr. Allingham offers innovative treatments for Peyronie’s disease including GAINSWave® and can help restore your erection and your sex life. Call Cryo Body Doc or schedule a consultation online today.[/vc_section][vc_section]

Peyronie's Disease Q & A

What is Peyronie’s disease?

Peyronie’s disease is a condition where scar tissue grows inside your penis and causes your erection to curve unnaturally. Penises come in a wide range of shapes and sizes, so a slight curve is nothing to be concerned about. However, if that curve is painful or makes it difficult to have sex, you should talk to Dr. Allingham. Early warning signs of Peyronie’s disease include:
  • Hard lumps on your penis
  • Pain when you get an erection or during sex
  • A curve in your penis, with or without an erection
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Penis becomes narrow
In most cases, the fibrous scar tissue develops on either the top or bottom of the penis. When you get an erection, that scar tissue doesn’t expand like the rest of your penis does. The patch of tight scar tissue reduces the elasticity of your flesh and pulls on the surrounding spongy tissue and skin, pulling your penis into an unnatural curve.

What causes Peyronie’s disease?

The exact cause of Peyronie’s disease isn’t fully understood. The condition is not contagious, and doctors and medical researchers believe it could be caused by acute or chronic injury to the penis or an autoimmune disease. For example, you may sustain an injury to your penis while playing sports or during sexual intercourse. Risk factors for Peyronie’s disease include vigorous activities that cause microscopic injuries, a family history of Peyronie’s disease, getting older, and certain connective-tissue and autoimmune diseases.

How is Peyronie’s disease treated?

Dr. Allingham treats Peyronie’s disease with GAINSWave, a noninvasive treatment that uses soundwaves to break down the scar tissue in your penis and improve your circulation. GAINSWave therapy uses high-frequency soundwaves to break down the scar tissue in your penis so your body can absorb and remove the fibrous tissue. The soundwaves also stimulate new capillary growth which improves blood flow, reducing other symptoms of erectile dysfunction, which are common when you have Peyronie’s disease. In addition to GAINSWave, Dr. Allingham also provides shockwave therapy, P-shot, and acoustic therapy to address Peyronie’s disease and erectile dysfunction. He offers a thorough consultation before recommending the treatment he believes will best treat your symptoms. Call Cryo Body Doc today or make an appointment online for effective, customized treatments for Peyronie’s disease.
[/vc_section][vc_section][vc_row][vc_column width="1/3"][/vc_column][vc_column width="1/3"][vc_btn title="REQUEST APPOINTMENT" color="violet" align="center" link="url:%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2019%2F03%2F71787.png|||"][/vc_column][vc_column width="1/3"][/vc_column][/vc_row][/vc_section]
 
How can I improve my memory?
 

Growth Hormone & Peptides

Introduction

The basics that will allow you to understand this latest hot topic are presented.

 

Disclaimer

This discussion of the interaction of peptides and your bodies growth hormone levels is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self treat yourself.

 

Discussion

Most of us are aware that the body makes growth hormone (GH; also known as somatotropin). It is made by the pituitary gland, and it has many beneficial effects for the body. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus, goes to the pituitary somatotrophs, where it triggers their release of GH.
 
Cells have receptors for GH. When the GH binds to the cell, it directs the cell’s protein production, both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transcription and all those pathways (normal physiology includes the up regulation of beta oxidation, the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation from the electron transport chain, the up regulation of the Kreb’s cycle production of ATP, and the up regulation of anti-oxidant production), producing healthy proliferation and thus terrific anti-aging effects.
 
Yes, every cell has two genomes, the nuclear genome and the mitochondrial genome, working in concert together to keep the cell healthy. If there is a stressor on that cell, trauma, disease, substrate abuse, the mitochondrial genome falls into disarray and is unable to handle substrate (glucose, fat) correctly. Glucose intolerance occurs. Insulin resistance occurs. Disease advances.
 
Up regulating GH in the body it turns out is extremely healthy. It clearly restores mitochondrial energy creating efficiency in a diseased cell. But it also optimizes it in the seemingly healthy cell that has fallen behind due to the more subtle stressors that have come with age - gravity, exposure, regular wear and tear even.
 
However, if GH is supplemented (and that’s illegal in the US for good reasons that I’ll explain here), it bypasses the body’s feedback mechanisms and can thus inhibit the body‘s natural ability to make GH, and lead to unhealthy situations.
 
So, we stick to the healthy harnessing of increased GH in the body by studying how the body increases GH naturally. And by doing this, we have discovered a lot of things that will increase the body’s ability to increase its own GH, and most of those are allowed. It’s called up-regulating GH, and if done with the guidance of a trained physician, it can lead to great results.
 
Exercise and intermittent fasting are two spectacular things that increase the body’s ability to make its own GH, and are both great anti-aging things to do. We knew that. And that’s why.
 
But there are also substances that safely up regulate GH while not hurting the GH feedback loop, because no exogenous GH has been supplemented. They are classified into two main groups, growth hormone releasing peptides and growth hormone releasing hormones.
 
For an understanding of how these work, you have to understand the basic physiology of GH release.
 
Turns out that (like most hormones) GH is pulsed all day at a rate that is very patient specific... Anywhere from once to six times a day. Release, recover. Release, recover. Usually a three hour window before it’s potential for release is once again allowed. All governed by GHRH pulses. Meanwhile, simultaneously, there is a constant inhibitory signal from somatostatin on the somatotrophs preventing GH release. Somatostatin has to allow GH release. The every three hours window as stated - the somatotrophs have the potential to release GH.
 
GH releasing peptides (GHRP’s) up regulate GH release in a different way from GH releasing hormones (GHRH’s).
 
GHRH’s up the machinery for improved GH release. GHRP’s inhibit somatostatin to allow GH release.
 
We can supplement GHRH’s, multiple are federally approved and on the market (Sermorelin, modified CJC12195...). We can supplement GHRP’s (modified 129, others) - multiple are federally approved and on the market.
 
So you get it. GH that the body makes has beneficial effects. If increased, we can better those effects. Can we do more than exercise and intermittent fasting to up regulate our bodies on production of endogenous GH? Yes.
 
Our bodies produce less and less GH as we age. But the body, the cell, of a 90-year-old still has the exact same potential to produce the GH as that of a young adult! We just have to turn that cell on.
 
With the peptides that up regulate GH, so, with GH, we are trying to up regulate/return the body back to a physiologic state. We are not going for supra-physiologic status.
 
We are trying to get the cell into a homeostatic pattern of living. This is not homeopathic medicine. Please keep those two terms distinctly separate and unequal.
 
And this resetting of cellular state we hope will be somewhat permanent in its ability to better handle substrates, glucose, fat, until it falls into disarray again.
 
It’s a return to cellular efficiency - with regards to handling substrates above all - for as long as possible, per tuneup. This up regulating of substrate handling capacity occurs of course in the mitochondria.
 
The cell had fallen into a state of disarray and poor mitochondrial function due to some stressor. So the GH upping peptide fix may not be permanent, assuming another stressor may come along.
 
And one of the beauties of all this is that these peptides don’t have to be devised or invented like drugs or artificial manipulations that have fascinated big Pharma for decades. They just have to be found. Correct. Right here. In our own bodies. And they are indeed all found in the body. We are simply looking to see what the body does to make its own GH.
 
How GH Produces Benefits
 
GH produces its benefits by increasing insulin like growth factor one (IGF-1).
 
Briefly, cells have GH receptors. Some cells have GHRH receptors and GHRP receptors on the same cell. Many cells have IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1 is mainly made by certain cells that are up regulated by GH).
 
GH, in general, binds to a cell and improves cell function, makes cells take in glucose, etc. (note: increasing glucose tolerance, decreasing insulin resistance!), and increases cell proliferation. And GH increases IGF-1.
 
IGF-1 is a protein hormone that provides the negative feedback mechanism to GH.
 
IGF-1 also leads to up-regulating of cell activity, also leads to an increase in growth and proliferation like GH, but there is also differentiation that occurs with IGF-1.
 
And IGF-1 is also about cell survival.
 
Since IGF-1 is about differentiation and cell survival, IGF-1 does things to protect cells from apoptosis.
 
There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins. The mitochondria, powerhouses of the cell, decide whether or not the cell is going to go into apoptosis or not. Mitochondria contain the DNA to produce the proteins that govern this. There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins it turns out that work in a see-saw relation deciding for or against apoptosis, depending on the balance they are shifted.
 
But there’s two more requirements that makes this whole system really work. One, there must be a stressor. In the case of muscles, it’s exercise. Brain: using it. Like that. It’s an ongoing oxidative stressor that the tissue requires to grow or maintain youth or undo damage so you’re not just firing peptides at it. Two, the stressor must be pulsatile. Again, using muscles as an example, if you were to exercise every day without recovery, the cell machinery’s receptors are going to become refractory to the peptide signal. The recovery allows the muscle a chance to rest. Without recovery, it’s going to break down. And that’s only part of the disease or inflammatory aging problem.
 
 
Risks
 
Harmful effects of excess GH come from excessive exogenous GH inhibiting the body’s own production of its own GH. So exogenous GH is understandably illegal - unless a person has a condition reducing their body’s ability to respond to GH (AIDS patients on anti-retroviral drugs that have this effect on GH metabolism) or a person has a condition in which GH is not manufactured correctly (GH deficiency or GHD).
 
Harmful effects of excessive GH up-regulating come from excessive receptor stimulation, leading to receptor shut down. Not a good condition either. So as GH up-regulation using peptides is completely legal, it should only be conducted by physicians thoroughly trained in these therapies.
 
So for example, if a receptor for GH in the brain is overly up-regulated, the receptor can shut down. A nice for instance is a peptide that is used for up regulating GH in muscles - MK0677, an oral GHRP. Well, it helps the muscles grow the more it’s used. However, once you hit a certain dose of it, it begins to oversaturate an anxiety (and fear) controlling GH receptor in the brain in a matter that shuts it down. Right. That’ss... Bad. Remember, it takes a great deal of time for this to occur, and a great deal of neglect. But it is a risk. So there are time use limits.
 
Also, the excessive up regulation of any beneficial peptide producing a sweet spot of returning a stressed or diseased cell to ideal physiologic homeostasis could lead to an overdrive of mitochondrial or nuclear genomic machinery, creating excessive free radicals. This could lead to shut down of portions of the electron transport chain with in the mitochondria. A lack of rest from such an overdrive from such an excess of a peptide is where problems are seen. The cell can only do so much for so long. And for every cytochrome that is shut down in the mitochondria and not producing electron transport any longer, there is less ATP made. With decreased ATP production, you have decreased the efficiency of the mitochondria. Doesn’t sound like a bad harm, but it’s also undesirable, and not what the goal was in the first place with peptide up regulation of GH - creating an ideal sweet spot of homeopathy. Overwhelming the cells of a tissue obviously lead to cell death, fibrosis, and organ dysfunction.
 
Really the only other downside to peptides - side effects of the metabolites of peptides - is exhaustively prevented by this growing industry because they study the potential molecules fragments of the naturally occurring peptide or synthetic peptides being administered more exhaustively than any drugs that have ever been rolled out before. But these peptides are already so small to begin with, that their even smaller degradation products, always carefully studied, are well tolerated and cleared without any side effects.

 

Conclusion

So, GH is good for our cells - it produces an anti-aging effect, it helps memory.
 
However, the FDA specifically forbids use of GH in adults in anti-aging except in AIDS (anti-AIDS medications like anti-retrovirals hurt the body’s GH response so these folks need exogenous GH) or human growth hormone deficiency (GHD).
 
So, we can make the body make more of its own GH (up-regulate) by using peptides, intermittent fasting, and exercise. This is completely allowed. And it is completely safe, because the feedback mechanisms are all kept intact (there isn’t any exogenous GH suppressing GH production).
 
The only real risk of up regulating the body’s own GH is over driving the cell beyond what it can physiologically do into shut down.
 
It’s the same old simple but valuable theme seen in so much anti-aging and regenerative medicine: find the sweet spot.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve muscle mass?
 

Growth Hormone & Peptides

Introduction

The basics that will allow you to understand this latest hot topic are presented.

 

Disclaimer

This discussion of the interaction of peptides and your bodies growth hormone levels is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self treat yourself.

 

Discussion

Most of us are aware that the body makes growth hormone (GH; also known as somatotropin). It is made by the pituitary gland, and it has many beneficial effects for the body. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus, goes to the pituitary somatotrophs, where it triggers their release of GH.
 
Cells have receptors for GH. When the GH binds to the cell, it directs the cell’s protein production, both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transcription and all those pathways (normal physiology includes the up regulation of beta oxidation, the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation from the electron transport chain, the up regulation of the Kreb’s cycle production of ATP, and the up regulation of anti-oxidant production), producing healthy proliferation and thus terrific anti-aging effects.
 
Yes, every cell has two genomes, the nuclear genome and the mitochondrial genome, working in concert together to keep the cell healthy. If there is a stressor on that cell, trauma, disease, substrate abuse, the mitochondrial genome falls into disarray and is unable to handle substrate (glucose, fat) correctly. Glucose intolerance occurs. Insulin resistance occurs. Disease advances.
 
Up regulating GH in the body it turns out is extremely healthy. It clearly restores mitochondrial energy creating efficiency in a diseased cell. But it also optimizes it in the seemingly healthy cell that has fallen behind due to the more subtle stressors that have come with age - gravity, exposure, regular wear and tear even.
 
However, if GH is supplemented (and that’s illegal in the US for good reasons that I’ll explain here), it bypasses the body’s feedback mechanisms and can thus inhibit the body‘s natural ability to make GH, and lead to unhealthy situations.
 
So, we stick to the healthy harnessing of increased GH in the body by studying how the body increases GH naturally. And by doing this, we have discovered a lot of things that will increase the body’s ability to increase its own GH, and most of those are allowed. It’s called up-regulating GH, and if done with the guidance of a trained physician, it can lead to great results.
 
Exercise and intermittent fasting are two spectacular things that increase the body’s ability to make its own GH, and are both great anti-aging things to do. We knew that. And that’s why.
 
But there are also substances that safely up regulate GH while not hurting the GH feedback loop, because no exogenous GH has been supplemented. They are classified into two main groups, growth hormone releasing peptides and growth hormone releasing hormones.
 
For an understanding of how these work, you have to understand the basic physiology of GH release.
 
Turns out that (like most hormones) GH is pulsed all day at a rate that is very patient specific... Anywhere from once to six times a day. Release, recover. Release, recover. Usually a three hour window before it’s potential for release is once again allowed. All governed by GHRH pulses. Meanwhile, simultaneously, there is a constant inhibitory signal from somatostatin on the somatotrophs preventing GH release. Somatostatin has to allow GH release. The every three hours window as stated - the somatotrophs have the potential to release GH.
 
GH releasing peptides (GHRP’s) up regulate GH release in a different way from GH releasing hormones (GHRH’s).
 
GHRH’s up the machinery for improved GH release. GHRP’s inhibit somatostatin to allow GH release.
 
We can supplement GHRH’s, multiple are federally approved and on the market (Sermorelin, modified CJC12195...). We can supplement GHRP’s (modified 129, others) - multiple are federally approved and on the market.
 
So you get it. GH that the body makes has beneficial effects. If increased, we can better those effects. Can we do more than exercise and intermittent fasting to up regulate our bodies on production of endogenous GH? Yes.
 
Our bodies produce less and less GH as we age. But the body, the cell, of a 90-year-old still has the exact same potential to produce the GH as that of a young adult! We just have to turn that cell on.
 
With the peptides that up regulate GH, so, with GH, we are trying to up regulate/return the body back to a physiologic state. We are not going for supra-physiologic status.
 
We are trying to get the cell into a homeostatic pattern of living. This is not homeopathic medicine. Please keep those two terms distinctly separate and unequal.
 
And this resetting of cellular state we hope will be somewhat permanent in its ability to better handle substrates, glucose, fat, until it falls into disarray again.
 
It’s a return to cellular efficiency - with regards to handling substrates above all - for as long as possible, per tuneup. This up regulating of substrate handling capacity occurs of course in the mitochondria.
 
The cell had fallen into a state of disarray and poor mitochondrial function due to some stressor. So the GH upping peptide fix may not be permanent, assuming another stressor may come along.
 
And one of the beauties of all this is that these peptides don’t have to be devised or invented like drugs or artificial manipulations that have fascinated big Pharma for decades. They just have to be found. Correct. Right here. In our own bodies. And they are indeed all found in the body. We are simply looking to see what the body does to make its own GH.
 
How GH Produces Benefits
 
GH produces its benefits by increasing insulin like growth factor one (IGF-1).
 
Briefly, cells have GH receptors. Some cells have GHRH receptors and GHRP receptors on the same cell. Many cells have IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1 is mainly made by certain cells that are up regulated by GH).
 
GH, in general, binds to a cell and improves cell function, makes cells take in glucose, etc. (note: increasing glucose tolerance, decreasing insulin resistance!), and increases cell proliferation. And GH increases IGF-1.
 
IGF-1 is a protein hormone that provides the negative feedback mechanism to GH.
 
IGF-1 also leads to up-regulating of cell activity, also leads to an increase in growth and proliferation like GH, but there is also differentiation that occurs with IGF-1.
 
And IGF-1 is also about cell survival.
 
Since IGF-1 is about differentiation and cell survival, IGF-1 does things to protect cells from apoptosis.
 
There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins. The mitochondria, powerhouses of the cell, decide whether or not the cell is going to go into apoptosis or not. Mitochondria contain the DNA to produce the proteins that govern this. There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins it turns out that work in a see-saw relation deciding for or against apoptosis, depending on the balance they are shifted.
 
But there’s two more requirements that makes this whole system really work. One, there must be a stressor. In the case of muscles, it’s exercise. Brain: using it. Like that. It’s an ongoing oxidative stressor that the tissue requires to grow or maintain youth or undo damage so you’re not just firing peptides at it. Two, the stressor must be pulsatile. Again, using muscles as an example, if you were to exercise every day without recovery, the cell machinery’s receptors are going to become refractory to the peptide signal. The recovery allows the muscle a chance to rest. Without recovery, it’s going to break down. And that’s only part of the disease or inflammatory aging problem.
 
 
Risks
 
Harmful effects of excess GH come from excessive exogenous GH inhibiting the body’s own production of its own GH. So exogenous GH is understandably illegal - unless a person has a condition reducing their body’s ability to respond to GH (AIDS patients on anti-retroviral drugs that have this effect on GH metabolism) or a person has a condition in which GH is not manufactured correctly (GH deficiency or GHD).
 
Harmful effects of excessive GH up-regulating come from excessive receptor stimulation, leading to receptor shut down. Not a good condition either. So as GH up-regulation using peptides is completely legal, it should only be conducted by physicians thoroughly trained in these therapies.
 
So for example, if a receptor for GH in the brain is overly up-regulated, the receptor can shut down. A nice for instance is a peptide that is used for up regulating GH in muscles - MK0677, an oral GHRP. Well, it helps the muscles grow the more it’s used. However, once you hit a certain dose of it, it begins to oversaturate an anxiety (and fear) controlling GH receptor in the brain in a matter that shuts it down. Right. That’ss... Bad. Remember, it takes a great deal of time for this to occur, and a great deal of neglect. But it is a risk. So there are time use limits.
 
Also, the excessive up regulation of any beneficial peptide producing a sweet spot of returning a stressed or diseased cell to ideal physiologic homeostasis could lead to an overdrive of mitochondrial or nuclear genomic machinery, creating excessive free radicals. This could lead to shut down of portions of the electron transport chain with in the mitochondria. A lack of rest from such an overdrive from such an excess of a peptide is where problems are seen. The cell can only do so much for so long. And for every cytochrome that is shut down in the mitochondria and not producing electron transport any longer, there is less ATP made. With decreased ATP production, you have decreased the efficiency of the mitochondria. Doesn’t sound like a bad harm, but it’s also undesirable, and not what the goal was in the first place with peptide up regulation of GH - creating an ideal sweet spot of homeopathy. Overwhelming the cells of a tissue obviously lead to cell death, fibrosis, and organ dysfunction.
 
Really the only other downside to peptides - side effects of the metabolites of peptides - is exhaustively prevented by this growing industry because they study the potential molecules fragments of the naturally occurring peptide or synthetic peptides being administered more exhaustively than any drugs that have ever been rolled out before. But these peptides are already so small to begin with, that their even smaller degradation products, always carefully studied, are well tolerated and cleared without any side effects.

 

Conclusion

So, GH is good for our cells - it produces an anti-aging effect, it helps memory.
 
However, the FDA specifically forbids use of GH in adults in anti-aging except in AIDS (anti-AIDS medications like anti-retrovirals hurt the body’s GH response so these folks need exogenous GH) or human growth hormone deficiency (GHD).
 
So, we can make the body make more of its own GH (up-regulate) by using peptides, intermittent fasting, and exercise. This is completely allowed. And it is completely safe, because the feedback mechanisms are all kept intact (there isn’t any exogenous GH suppressing GH production).
 
The only real risk of up regulating the body’s own GH is over driving the cell beyond what it can physiologically do into shut down.
 
It’s the same old simple but valuable theme seen in so much anti-aging and regenerative medicine: find the sweet spot.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I really bulk up?
 

Growth Hormone & Peptides

Introduction

The basics that will allow you to understand this latest hot topic are presented.

 

Disclaimer

This discussion of the interaction of peptides and your bodies growth hormone levels is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self treat yourself.

 

Discussion

Most of us are aware that the body makes growth hormone (GH; also known as somatotropin). It is made by the pituitary gland, and it has many beneficial effects for the body. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus, goes to the pituitary somatotrophs, where it triggers their release of GH.
 
Cells have receptors for GH. When the GH binds to the cell, it directs the cell’s protein production, both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transcription and all those pathways (normal physiology includes the up regulation of beta oxidation, the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation from the electron transport chain, the up regulation of the Kreb’s cycle production of ATP, and the up regulation of anti-oxidant production), producing healthy proliferation and thus terrific anti-aging effects.
 
Yes, every cell has two genomes, the nuclear genome and the mitochondrial genome, working in concert together to keep the cell healthy. If there is a stressor on that cell, trauma, disease, substrate abuse, the mitochondrial genome falls into disarray and is unable to handle substrate (glucose, fat) correctly. Glucose intolerance occurs. Insulin resistance occurs. Disease advances.
 
Up regulating GH in the body it turns out is extremely healthy. It clearly restores mitochondrial energy creating efficiency in a diseased cell. But it also optimizes it in the seemingly healthy cell that has fallen behind due to the more subtle stressors that have come with age - gravity, exposure, regular wear and tear even.
 
However, if GH is supplemented (and that’s illegal in the US for good reasons that I’ll explain here), it bypasses the body’s feedback mechanisms and can thus inhibit the body‘s natural ability to make GH, and lead to unhealthy situations.
 
So, we stick to the healthy harnessing of increased GH in the body by studying how the body increases GH naturally. And by doing this, we have discovered a lot of things that will increase the body’s ability to increase its own GH, and most of those are allowed. It’s called up-regulating GH, and if done with the guidance of a trained physician, it can lead to great results.
 
Exercise and intermittent fasting are two spectacular things that increase the body’s ability to make its own GH, and are both great anti-aging things to do. We knew that. And that’s why.
 
But there are also substances that safely up regulate GH while not hurting the GH feedback loop, because no exogenous GH has been supplemented. They are classified into two main groups, growth hormone releasing peptides and growth hormone releasing hormones.
 
For an understanding of how these work, you have to understand the basic physiology of GH release.
 
Turns out that (like most hormones) GH is pulsed all day at a rate that is very patient specific... Anywhere from once to six times a day. Release, recover. Release, recover. Usually a three hour window before it’s potential for release is once again allowed. All governed by GHRH pulses. Meanwhile, simultaneously, there is a constant inhibitory signal from somatostatin on the somatotrophs preventing GH release. Somatostatin has to allow GH release. The every three hours window as stated - the somatotrophs have the potential to release GH.
 
GH releasing peptides (GHRP’s) up regulate GH release in a different way from GH releasing hormones (GHRH’s).
 
GHRH’s up the machinery for improved GH release. GHRP’s inhibit somatostatin to allow GH release.
 
We can supplement GHRH’s, multiple are federally approved and on the market (Sermorelin, modified CJC12195...). We can supplement GHRP’s (modified 129, others) - multiple are federally approved and on the market.
 
So you get it. GH that the body makes has beneficial effects. If increased, we can better those effects. Can we do more than exercise and intermittent fasting to up regulate our bodies on production of endogenous GH? Yes.
 
Our bodies produce less and less GH as we age. But the body, the cell, of a 90-year-old still has the exact same potential to produce the GH as that of a young adult! We just have to turn that cell on.
 
With the peptides that up regulate GH, so, with GH, we are trying to up regulate/return the body back to a physiologic state. We are not going for supra-physiologic status.
 
We are trying to get the cell into a homeostatic pattern of living. This is not homeopathic medicine. Please keep those two terms distinctly separate and unequal.
 
And this resetting of cellular state we hope will be somewhat permanent in its ability to better handle substrates, glucose, fat, until it falls into disarray again.
 
It’s a return to cellular efficiency - with regards to handling substrates above all - for as long as possible, per tuneup. This up regulating of substrate handling capacity occurs of course in the mitochondria.
 
The cell had fallen into a state of disarray and poor mitochondrial function due to some stressor. So the GH upping peptide fix may not be permanent, assuming another stressor may come along.
 
And one of the beauties of all this is that these peptides don’t have to be devised or invented like drugs or artificial manipulations that have fascinated big Pharma for decades. They just have to be found. Correct. Right here. In our own bodies. And they are indeed all found in the body. We are simply looking to see what the body does to make its own GH.
 
How GH Produces Benefits
 
GH produces its benefits by increasing insulin like growth factor one (IGF-1).
 
Briefly, cells have GH receptors. Some cells have GHRH receptors and GHRP receptors on the same cell. Many cells have IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1 is mainly made by certain cells that are up regulated by GH).
 
GH, in general, binds to a cell and improves cell function, makes cells take in glucose, etc. (note: increasing glucose tolerance, decreasing insulin resistance!), and increases cell proliferation. And GH increases IGF-1.
 
IGF-1 is a protein hormone that provides the negative feedback mechanism to GH.
 
IGF-1 also leads to up-regulating of cell activity, also leads to an increase in growth and proliferation like GH, but there is also differentiation that occurs with IGF-1.
 
And IGF-1 is also about cell survival.
 
Since IGF-1 is about differentiation and cell survival, IGF-1 does things to protect cells from apoptosis.
 
There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins. The mitochondria, powerhouses of the cell, decide whether or not the cell is going to go into apoptosis or not. Mitochondria contain the DNA to produce the proteins that govern this. There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins it turns out that work in a see-saw relation deciding for or against apoptosis, depending on the balance they are shifted.
 
But there’s two more requirements that makes this whole system really work. One, there must be a stressor. In the case of muscles, it’s exercise. Brain: using it. Like that. It’s an ongoing oxidative stressor that the tissue requires to grow or maintain youth or undo damage so you’re not just firing peptides at it. Two, the stressor must be pulsatile. Again, using muscles as an example, if you were to exercise every day without recovery, the cell machinery’s receptors are going to become refractory to the peptide signal. The recovery allows the muscle a chance to rest. Without recovery, it’s going to break down. And that’s only part of the disease or inflammatory aging problem.
 
 
Risks
 
Harmful effects of excess GH come from excessive exogenous GH inhibiting the body’s own production of its own GH. So exogenous GH is understandably illegal - unless a person has a condition reducing their body’s ability to respond to GH (AIDS patients on anti-retroviral drugs that have this effect on GH metabolism) or a person has a condition in which GH is not manufactured correctly (GH deficiency or GHD).
 
Harmful effects of excessive GH up-regulating come from excessive receptor stimulation, leading to receptor shut down. Not a good condition either. So as GH up-regulation using peptides is completely legal, it should only be conducted by physicians thoroughly trained in these therapies.
 
So for example, if a receptor for GH in the brain is overly up-regulated, the receptor can shut down. A nice for instance is a peptide that is used for up regulating GH in muscles - MK0677, an oral GHRP. Well, it helps the muscles grow the more it’s used. However, once you hit a certain dose of it, it begins to oversaturate an anxiety (and fear) controlling GH receptor in the brain in a matter that shuts it down. Right. That’ss... Bad. Remember, it takes a great deal of time for this to occur, and a great deal of neglect. But it is a risk. So there are time use limits.
 
Also, the excessive up regulation of any beneficial peptide producing a sweet spot of returning a stressed or diseased cell to ideal physiologic homeostasis could lead to an overdrive of mitochondrial or nuclear genomic machinery, creating excessive free radicals. This could lead to shut down of portions of the electron transport chain with in the mitochondria. A lack of rest from such an overdrive from such an excess of a peptide is where problems are seen. The cell can only do so much for so long. And for every cytochrome that is shut down in the mitochondria and not producing electron transport any longer, there is less ATP made. With decreased ATP production, you have decreased the efficiency of the mitochondria. Doesn’t sound like a bad harm, but it’s also undesirable, and not what the goal was in the first place with peptide up regulation of GH - creating an ideal sweet spot of homeopathy. Overwhelming the cells of a tissue obviously lead to cell death, fibrosis, and organ dysfunction.
 
Really the only other downside to peptides - side effects of the metabolites of peptides - is exhaustively prevented by this growing industry because they study the potential molecules fragments of the naturally occurring peptide or synthetic peptides being administered more exhaustively than any drugs that have ever been rolled out before. But these peptides are already so small to begin with, that their even smaller degradation products, always carefully studied, are well tolerated and cleared without any side effects.

 

Conclusion

So, GH is good for our cells - it produces an anti-aging effect, it helps memory.
 
However, the FDA specifically forbids use of GH in adults in anti-aging except in AIDS (anti-AIDS medications like anti-retrovirals hurt the body’s GH response so these folks need exogenous GH) or human growth hormone deficiency (GHD).
 
So, we can make the body make more of its own GH (up-regulate) by using peptides, intermittent fasting, and exercise. This is completely allowed. And it is completely safe, because the feedback mechanisms are all kept intact (there isn’t any exogenous GH suppressing GH production).
 
The only real risk of up regulating the body’s own GH is over driving the cell beyond what it can physiologically do into shut down.
 
It’s the same old simple but valuable theme seen in so much anti-aging and regenerative medicine: find the sweet spot.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I get really big
 

Growth Hormone & Peptides

Introduction

The basics that will allow you to understand this latest hot topic are presented.

 

Disclaimer

This discussion of the interaction of peptides and your bodies growth hormone levels is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self treat yourself.

 

Discussion

Most of us are aware that the body makes growth hormone (GH; also known as somatotropin). It is made by the pituitary gland, and it has many beneficial effects for the body. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus, goes to the pituitary somatotrophs, where it triggers their release of GH.
 
Cells have receptors for GH. When the GH binds to the cell, it directs the cell’s protein production, both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transcription and all those pathways (normal physiology includes the up regulation of beta oxidation, the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation from the electron transport chain, the up regulation of the Kreb’s cycle production of ATP, and the up regulation of anti-oxidant production), producing healthy proliferation and thus terrific anti-aging effects.
 
Yes, every cell has two genomes, the nuclear genome and the mitochondrial genome, working in concert together to keep the cell healthy. If there is a stressor on that cell, trauma, disease, substrate abuse, the mitochondrial genome falls into disarray and is unable to handle substrate (glucose, fat) correctly. Glucose intolerance occurs. Insulin resistance occurs. Disease advances.
 
Up regulating GH in the body it turns out is extremely healthy. It clearly restores mitochondrial energy creating efficiency in a diseased cell. But it also optimizes it in the seemingly healthy cell that has fallen behind due to the more subtle stressors that have come with age - gravity, exposure, regular wear and tear even.
 
However, if GH is supplemented (and that’s illegal in the US for good reasons that I’ll explain here), it bypasses the body’s feedback mechanisms and can thus inhibit the body‘s natural ability to make GH, and lead to unhealthy situations.
 
So, we stick to the healthy harnessing of increased GH in the body by studying how the body increases GH naturally. And by doing this, we have discovered a lot of things that will increase the body’s ability to increase its own GH, and most of those are allowed. It’s called up-regulating GH, and if done with the guidance of a trained physician, it can lead to great results.
 
Exercise and intermittent fasting are two spectacular things that increase the body’s ability to make its own GH, and are both great anti-aging things to do. We knew that. And that’s why.
 
But there are also substances that safely up regulate GH while not hurting the GH feedback loop, because no exogenous GH has been supplemented. They are classified into two main groups, growth hormone releasing peptides and growth hormone releasing hormones.
 
For an understanding of how these work, you have to understand the basic physiology of GH release.
 
Turns out that (like most hormones) GH is pulsed all day at a rate that is very patient specific... Anywhere from once to six times a day. Release, recover. Release, recover. Usually a three hour window before it’s potential for release is once again allowed. All governed by GHRH pulses. Meanwhile, simultaneously, there is a constant inhibitory signal from somatostatin on the somatotrophs preventing GH release. Somatostatin has to allow GH release. The every three hours window as stated - the somatotrophs have the potential to release GH.
 
GH releasing peptides (GHRP’s) up regulate GH release in a different way from GH releasing hormones (GHRH’s).
 
GHRH’s up the machinery for improved GH release. GHRP’s inhibit somatostatin to allow GH release.
 
We can supplement GHRH’s, multiple are federally approved and on the market (Sermorelin, modified CJC12195...). We can supplement GHRP’s (modified 129, others) - multiple are federally approved and on the market.
 
So you get it. GH that the body makes has beneficial effects. If increased, we can better those effects. Can we do more than exercise and intermittent fasting to up regulate our bodies on production of endogenous GH? Yes.
 
Our bodies produce less and less GH as we age. But the body, the cell, of a 90-year-old still has the exact same potential to produce the GH as that of a young adult! We just have to turn that cell on.
 
With the peptides that up regulate GH, so, with GH, we are trying to up regulate/return the body back to a physiologic state. We are not going for supra-physiologic status.
 
We are trying to get the cell into a homeostatic pattern of living. This is not homeopathic medicine. Please keep those two terms distinctly separate and unequal.
 
And this resetting of cellular state we hope will be somewhat permanent in its ability to better handle substrates, glucose, fat, until it falls into disarray again.
 
It’s a return to cellular efficiency - with regards to handling substrates above all - for as long as possible, per tuneup. This up regulating of substrate handling capacity occurs of course in the mitochondria.
 
The cell had fallen into a state of disarray and poor mitochondrial function due to some stressor. So the GH upping peptide fix may not be permanent, assuming another stressor may come along.
 
And one of the beauties of all this is that these peptides don’t have to be devised or invented like drugs or artificial manipulations that have fascinated big Pharma for decades. They just have to be found. Correct. Right here. In our own bodies. And they are indeed all found in the body. We are simply looking to see what the body does to make its own GH.
 
How GH Produces Benefits
 
GH produces its benefits by increasing insulin like growth factor one (IGF-1).
 
Briefly, cells have GH receptors. Some cells have GHRH receptors and GHRP receptors on the same cell. Many cells have IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1 is mainly made by certain cells that are up regulated by GH).
 
GH, in general, binds to a cell and improves cell function, makes cells take in glucose, etc. (note: increasing glucose tolerance, decreasing insulin resistance!), and increases cell proliferation. And GH increases IGF-1.
 
IGF-1 is a protein hormone that provides the negative feedback mechanism to GH.
 
IGF-1 also leads to up-regulating of cell activity, also leads to an increase in growth and proliferation like GH, but there is also differentiation that occurs with IGF-1.
 
And IGF-1 is also about cell survival.
 
Since IGF-1 is about differentiation and cell survival, IGF-1 does things to protect cells from apoptosis.
 
There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins. The mitochondria, powerhouses of the cell, decide whether or not the cell is going to go into apoptosis or not. Mitochondria contain the DNA to produce the proteins that govern this. There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins it turns out that work in a see-saw relation deciding for or against apoptosis, depending on the balance they are shifted.
 
But there’s two more requirements that makes this whole system really work. One, there must be a stressor. In the case of muscles, it’s exercise. Brain: using it. Like that. It’s an ongoing oxidative stressor that the tissue requires to grow or maintain youth or undo damage so you’re not just firing peptides at it. Two, the stressor must be pulsatile. Again, using muscles as an example, if you were to exercise every day without recovery, the cell machinery’s receptors are going to become refractory to the peptide signal. The recovery allows the muscle a chance to rest. Without recovery, it’s going to break down. And that’s only part of the disease or inflammatory aging problem.
 
 
Risks
 
Harmful effects of excess GH come from excessive exogenous GH inhibiting the body’s own production of its own GH. So exogenous GH is understandably illegal - unless a person has a condition reducing their body’s ability to respond to GH (AIDS patients on anti-retroviral drugs that have this effect on GH metabolism) or a person has a condition in which GH is not manufactured correctly (GH deficiency or GHD).
 
Harmful effects of excessive GH up-regulating come from excessive receptor stimulation, leading to receptor shut down. Not a good condition either. So as GH up-regulation using peptides is completely legal, it should only be conducted by physicians thoroughly trained in these therapies.
 
So for example, if a receptor for GH in the brain is overly up-regulated, the receptor can shut down. A nice for instance is a peptide that is used for up regulating GH in muscles - MK0677, an oral GHRP. Well, it helps the muscles grow the more it’s used. However, once you hit a certain dose of it, it begins to oversaturate an anxiety (and fear) controlling GH receptor in the brain in a matter that shuts it down. Right. That’ss... Bad. Remember, it takes a great deal of time for this to occur, and a great deal of neglect. But it is a risk. So there are time use limits.
 
Also, the excessive up regulation of any beneficial peptide producing a sweet spot of returning a stressed or diseased cell to ideal physiologic homeostasis could lead to an overdrive of mitochondrial or nuclear genomic machinery, creating excessive free radicals. This could lead to shut down of portions of the electron transport chain with in the mitochondria. A lack of rest from such an overdrive from such an excess of a peptide is where problems are seen. The cell can only do so much for so long. And for every cytochrome that is shut down in the mitochondria and not producing electron transport any longer, there is less ATP made. With decreased ATP production, you have decreased the efficiency of the mitochondria. Doesn’t sound like a bad harm, but it’s also undesirable, and not what the goal was in the first place with peptide up regulation of GH - creating an ideal sweet spot of homeopathy. Overwhelming the cells of a tissue obviously lead to cell death, fibrosis, and organ dysfunction.
 
Really the only other downside to peptides - side effects of the metabolites of peptides - is exhaustively prevented by this growing industry because they study the potential molecules fragments of the naturally occurring peptide or synthetic peptides being administered more exhaustively than any drugs that have ever been rolled out before. But these peptides are already so small to begin with, that their even smaller degradation products, always carefully studied, are well tolerated and cleared without any side effects.

 

Conclusion

So, GH is good for our cells - it produces an anti-aging effect, it helps memory.
 
However, the FDA specifically forbids use of GH in adults in anti-aging except in AIDS (anti-AIDS medications like anti-retrovirals hurt the body’s GH response so these folks need exogenous GH) or human growth hormone deficiency (GHD).
 
So, we can make the body make more of its own GH (up-regulate) by using peptides, intermittent fasting, and exercise. This is completely allowed. And it is completely safe, because the feedback mechanisms are all kept intact (there isn’t any exogenous GH suppressing GH production).
 
The only real risk of up regulating the body’s own GH is over driving the cell beyond what it can physiologically do into shut down.
 
It’s the same old simple but valuable theme seen in so much anti-aging and regenerative medicine: find the sweet spot.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I take care of my family members cancer?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I get a six pack?
 

Cryo Lipolysis

Introduction

The most salient principles and pearls of lipolysis by the transfer of cold energy, one of the many body sculpting modalities currently available, are reviewed here.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purposes of learning. Please stick to the recommendations of a licensed physician for all body sculpting therapy.

 

Discussion

I know, it’s commonly known that the process of burning fat is called lipolysis.

But did you know that with the best cold therapy techniques or lemonade in fact, there are always a component of heat. Yes, combination therapy is a recurring theme in all body sculpting.

But actually, within the cryo-modality itself alone, there is some heat involved with the best therapies available on the market. More is better. This is one of those universes.

The deeper or longer the burn on the fat, the more persistent the fat burn. Unfortunately, though, deeper burning from severely lower temperatures is producing side effects, some of which are well tolerated, some of which are not.

Moderate speculation here but follow my train of thought. If overly intense cooling is leading to some nodules in some patients that are detected visibly, who’s to say they are not producing more microscopic nodules and patients that aren’t noticed visibly.

Either type of nodule is still a growth, even though it may be a benign growth. Well, see if you can follow this. It is well established and known in medicine that benign growths can become malignant.

So, you make your own conclusions, but the more growths you are producing, nodules and otherwise, microscopic and macroscopic, the more risk there is for malignancy. And that seems to be proving out.

Moore reports of malignancy are being reported with colder temperature therapies. None are being reported with moderate cold therapies.

Conclusion

When it comes to fat burning, we’re Garlist of the modality, everyone in the industry, medical and nonmedical, want to come to aesthetics, we all agree - - it’s all about a sweet spot. If you don’t do enough, you don’t get enough results. If you do too much, there are risks, plus you don’t get results.

That leaves for the purposes of this discussion... The deeper killing produced by longer treatment therapies in safer temperature modalities are producing longer lasting fat killing, probably more effective and definitely safer. And cheaper.

The tolerance of almost any fat loss as it occurs as well as long-term is proving to be dramatically excellent.

 

 
How can I improve function in my bones?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve function in my liver?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve function in my muscle?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve function in my fat tissue?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How does GH work?
 

Growth Hormone & Peptides

Introduction

The basics that will allow you to understand this latest hot topic are presented.

 

Disclaimer

This discussion of the interaction of peptides and your bodies growth hormone levels is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self treat yourself.

 

Discussion

Most of us are aware that the body makes growth hormone (GH; also known as somatotropin). It is made by the pituitary gland, and it has many beneficial effects for the body. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus, goes to the pituitary somatotrophs, where it triggers their release of GH.
 
Cells have receptors for GH. When the GH binds to the cell, it directs the cell’s protein production, both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transcription and all those pathways (normal physiology includes the up regulation of beta oxidation, the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation from the electron transport chain, the up regulation of the Kreb’s cycle production of ATP, and the up regulation of anti-oxidant production), producing healthy proliferation and thus terrific anti-aging effects.
 
Yes, every cell has two genomes, the nuclear genome and the mitochondrial genome, working in concert together to keep the cell healthy. If there is a stressor on that cell, trauma, disease, substrate abuse, the mitochondrial genome falls into disarray and is unable to handle substrate (glucose, fat) correctly. Glucose intolerance occurs. Insulin resistance occurs. Disease advances.
 
Up regulating GH in the body it turns out is extremely healthy. It clearly restores mitochondrial energy creating efficiency in a diseased cell. But it also optimizes it in the seemingly healthy cell that has fallen behind due to the more subtle stressors that have come with age - gravity, exposure, regular wear and tear even.
 
However, if GH is supplemented (and that’s illegal in the US for good reasons that I’ll explain here), it bypasses the body’s feedback mechanisms and can thus inhibit the body‘s natural ability to make GH, and lead to unhealthy situations.
 
So, we stick to the healthy harnessing of increased GH in the body by studying how the body increases GH naturally. And by doing this, we have discovered a lot of things that will increase the body’s ability to increase its own GH, and most of those are allowed. It’s called up-regulating GH, and if done with the guidance of a trained physician, it can lead to great results.
 
Exercise and intermittent fasting are two spectacular things that increase the body’s ability to make its own GH, and are both great anti-aging things to do. We knew that. And that’s why.
 
But there are also substances that safely up regulate GH while not hurting the GH feedback loop, because no exogenous GH has been supplemented. They are classified into two main groups, growth hormone releasing peptides and growth hormone releasing hormones.
 
For an understanding of how these work, you have to understand the basic physiology of GH release.
 
Turns out that (like most hormones) GH is pulsed all day at a rate that is very patient specific... Anywhere from once to six times a day. Release, recover. Release, recover. Usually a three hour window before it’s potential for release is once again allowed. All governed by GHRH pulses. Meanwhile, simultaneously, there is a constant inhibitory signal from somatostatin on the somatotrophs preventing GH release. Somatostatin has to allow GH release. The every three hours window as stated - the somatotrophs have the potential to release GH.
 
GH releasing peptides (GHRP’s) up regulate GH release in a different way from GH releasing hormones (GHRH’s).
 
GHRH’s up the machinery for improved GH release. GHRP’s inhibit somatostatin to allow GH release.
 
We can supplement GHRH’s, multiple are federally approved and on the market (Sermorelin, modified CJC12195...). We can supplement GHRP’s (modified 129, others) - multiple are federally approved and on the market.
 
So you get it. GH that the body makes has beneficial effects. If increased, we can better those effects. Can we do more than exercise and intermittent fasting to up regulate our bodies on production of endogenous GH? Yes.
 
Our bodies produce less and less GH as we age. But the body, the cell, of a 90-year-old still has the exact same potential to produce the GH as that of a young adult! We just have to turn that cell on.
 
With the peptides that up regulate GH, so, with GH, we are trying to up regulate/return the body back to a physiologic state. We are not going for supra-physiologic status.
 
We are trying to get the cell into a homeostatic pattern of living. This is not homeopathic medicine. Please keep those two terms distinctly separate and unequal.
 
And this resetting of cellular state we hope will be somewhat permanent in its ability to better handle substrates, glucose, fat, until it falls into disarray again.
 
It’s a return to cellular efficiency - with regards to handling substrates above all - for as long as possible, per tuneup. This up regulating of substrate handling capacity occurs of course in the mitochondria.
 
The cell had fallen into a state of disarray and poor mitochondrial function due to some stressor. So the GH upping peptide fix may not be permanent, assuming another stressor may come along.
 
And one of the beauties of all this is that these peptides don’t have to be devised or invented like drugs or artificial manipulations that have fascinated big Pharma for decades. They just have to be found. Correct. Right here. In our own bodies. And they are indeed all found in the body. We are simply looking to see what the body does to make its own GH.
 
How GH Produces Benefits
 
GH produces its benefits by increasing insulin like growth factor one (IGF-1).
 
Briefly, cells have GH receptors. Some cells have GHRH receptors and GHRP receptors on the same cell. Many cells have IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1 is mainly made by certain cells that are up regulated by GH).
 
GH, in general, binds to a cell and improves cell function, makes cells take in glucose, etc. (note: increasing glucose tolerance, decreasing insulin resistance!), and increases cell proliferation. And GH increases IGF-1.
 
IGF-1 is a protein hormone that provides the negative feedback mechanism to GH.
 
IGF-1 also leads to up-regulating of cell activity, also leads to an increase in growth and proliferation like GH, but there is also differentiation that occurs with IGF-1.
 
And IGF-1 is also about cell survival.
 
Since IGF-1 is about differentiation and cell survival, IGF-1 does things to protect cells from apoptosis.
 
There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins. The mitochondria, powerhouses of the cell, decide whether or not the cell is going to go into apoptosis or not. Mitochondria contain the DNA to produce the proteins that govern this. There are anti-apoptotic proteins and pro-apoptotic proteins it turns out that work in a see-saw relation deciding for or against apoptosis, depending on the balance they are shifted.
 
But there’s two more requirements that makes this whole system really work. One, there must be a stressor. In the case of muscles, it’s exercise. Brain: using it. Like that. It’s an ongoing oxidative stressor that the tissue requires to grow or maintain youth or undo damage so you’re not just firing peptides at it. Two, the stressor must be pulsatile. Again, using muscles as an example, if you were to exercise every day without recovery, the cell machinery’s receptors are going to become refractory to the peptide signal. The recovery allows the muscle a chance to rest. Without recovery, it’s going to break down. And that’s only part of the disease or inflammatory aging problem.
 
 
Risks
 
Harmful effects of excess GH come from excessive exogenous GH inhibiting the body’s own production of its own GH. So exogenous GH is understandably illegal - unless a person has a condition reducing their body’s ability to respond to GH (AIDS patients on anti-retroviral drugs that have this effect on GH metabolism) or a person has a condition in which GH is not manufactured correctly (GH deficiency or GHD).
 
Harmful effects of excessive GH up-regulating come from excessive receptor stimulation, leading to receptor shut down. Not a good condition either. So as GH up-regulation using peptides is completely legal, it should only be conducted by physicians thoroughly trained in these therapies.
 
So for example, if a receptor for GH in the brain is overly up-regulated, the receptor can shut down. A nice for instance is a peptide that is used for up regulating GH in muscles - MK0677, an oral GHRP. Well, it helps the muscles grow the more it’s used. However, once you hit a certain dose of it, it begins to oversaturate an anxiety (and fear) controlling GH receptor in the brain in a matter that shuts it down. Right. That’ss... Bad. Remember, it takes a great deal of time for this to occur, and a great deal of neglect. But it is a risk. So there are time use limits.
 
Also, the excessive up regulation of any beneficial peptide producing a sweet spot of returning a stressed or diseased cell to ideal physiologic homeostasis could lead to an overdrive of mitochondrial or nuclear genomic machinery, creating excessive free radicals. This could lead to shut down of portions of the electron transport chain with in the mitochondria. A lack of rest from such an overdrive from such an excess of a peptide is where problems are seen. The cell can only do so much for so long. And for every cytochrome that is shut down in the mitochondria and not producing electron transport any longer, there is less ATP made. With decreased ATP production, you have decreased the efficiency of the mitochondria. Doesn’t sound like a bad harm, but it’s also undesirable, and not what the goal was in the first place with peptide up regulation of GH - creating an ideal sweet spot of homeopathy. Overwhelming the cells of a tissue obviously lead to cell death, fibrosis, and organ dysfunction.
 
Really the only other downside to peptides - side effects of the metabolites of peptides - is exhaustively prevented by this growing industry because they study the potential molecules fragments of the naturally occurring peptide or synthetic peptides being administered more exhaustively than any drugs that have ever been rolled out before. But these peptides are already so small to begin with, that their even smaller degradation products, always carefully studied, are well tolerated and cleared without any side effects.

 

Conclusion

So, GH is good for our cells - it produces an anti-aging effect, it helps memory.
 
However, the FDA specifically forbids use of GH in adults in anti-aging except in AIDS (anti-AIDS medications like anti-retrovirals hurt the body’s GH response so these folks need exogenous GH) or human growth hormone deficiency (GHD).
 
So, we can make the body make more of its own GH (up-regulate) by using peptides, intermittent fasting, and exercise. This is completely allowed. And it is completely safe, because the feedback mechanisms are all kept intact (there isn’t any exogenous GH suppressing GH production).
 
The only real risk of up regulating the body’s own GH is over driving the cell beyond what it can physiologically do into shut down.
 
It’s the same old simple but valuable theme seen in so much anti-aging and regenerative medicine: find the sweet spot.
 
Stay well,
DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 

 
How can I improve my sleep?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve my body composition?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve bone density?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve muscle mass?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve my immune system?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I increase my immune function?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve my cardiovascular capacity?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve cardio?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve exercise capacity?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I reverse diabetes?
 

Peptides: Uses

Introduction

Some uses of peptides today are reviewed.

 

Disclaimers

This is for the purpose of education only. Don’t try to self supplement or self medicate.

 

Discussion

Peptides are usually 20 to 50 amino acids long, connected by peptide bonds. Anything longer they’re considered polypeptides. Above 100 is a protein. So, as these are all strands of amino acids, all of these will have an amino group on one side, and a carboxyl group on the other. So, most peptides are so small, that just about any route of administration is extremely effective, oral, sub Q, and many new routes of administration put them at a clear advantage over drugs for general use.
 
Peptides are in all cells. All peptides are synthesized by ribosomes. Processes of transcription and translation and messenger RNA will not be discussed here. But the take-home is, they are natural! The body makes them.
 
All of these different types of peptides can be enzymes, ligands, hormones, cell receptors themselves, just about anything! And, since they have this receptor relationship, things can be attached to them, and they can attached himself to receptors with or without other things attached to them.
 
Hence, limitless uses beyond up regulating growth hormone.
 
Another discussion elsewhere in this blog, “Growth Hormone and Peptides,” reviews general principles of peptides in their up regulation of the body‘s production of growth hormone. Check that out please.
 
Listed elsewhere in other discussions in this blog detail the specific benefits of peptides currently in use. Brain, muscle, gut... Check those out, too.
 
Aging or disease (autoimmune, insulin resistance, cancer) is the decrease of GH, decreases of IGF-1, leading to sarcopenia, osteopenia, decreases in insulin sensitivity, dysfunction of amino acid uptake, loss of cognitive function and memory, decrease immune system, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and thus efficiency of the cell, thus inability to utilize substrates appropriately - again, ALL from BOTH disease or aging.
 
So, when someone says “peptides,” it’s mostly about the up regulating of GH to help the body using naturally occurring peptides. But some peptides are used simply because of the specificity of the receptors guiding them conjugated with things towards tissues of interest. And some are even used for downloading transcription and translation to alter cell functions.
 
Over 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been found. They must be doing useful things otherwise the body wouldn’t have them. They are under much review. So, discovering them isn’t an issue. We just have to keep finding them, and discovering their uses. Hundreds of active investigations and proposed investigations are on deck at this time.
 
There are 60 peptides currently approved by the FDA. Although most of the research is for metabolic disorders and cancer, there are exciting other uses already allowed. A few are reviewed here.
 
Basically, if you supplement peptides that are naturally occurring that operate to up regulate GH naturally or, alternatively, simply up regulate the body‘s production of the peptides that up regulate GH naturally by using synthetic peptides that are not naturally occurring, you achieve desire benefits safely.
 
Or, simply based on the specificity of peptide binding to cells, outside the realm of GH up regulating, you can use peptides that you know will specifically bind to cells to bring things to those cells to do things to those specific cells, like killing cells that are cancer cells.
 
In general, most of these peptides that are supplemented are poorly absorbed orally, so must be injected by the patients. Some are intranasal.
 
GH and IGF-1, please keep in mind, are made both centrally in the brain to regulate GH release, and peripherally in the tissues, at a local level. Peptides that up regulate them have those been shown to have a wide variety of functions and thus uses.
 
Gut
 
BPC is made by the gastric mucosa. So similar versions of it can be synthesized like BPC-157. This particular synthetic peptide is showing promise in angiogenesis and other regeneration especially if tissue damage has occurred. BPC is oral, injectable, and some are trying to use it intranasally.
 
Brain
 
The brain is a great example of one tissue type where GH up-regulating helps us.
 
Neuroplasticity is a very real world. And, consistent with the general theme exemplified by muscles requiring exercise, the brain is not going to improve by just receiving peptides. The brain must be challenged. And then receive peptides.
 
And it’s the same general theme as is the case for all tissues: if the tissue loses its ability to respond to stress, disease and aging follows. Similarly, if the brain is not challenged, it loses its ability to respond to stress, and disorders and age induced inflammation follow. And neuroplasticity is lost.
 
Peptides are giving that diseased or aging cell a chance to respond to challenge back.
 
GHRHs and GHRPs are growth hormone releasing hormones and growth hormone releasing peptides, respectively, that the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, produce, that obviously up regulate growth hormone. And the synthetic mimics that we can make last a little longer and then actually occurring ones do.
 
“Fluid intelligence,” which includes short term memory, is actively degrading overtime. It is affected by GH and IGF-1.
 
Well established is the fact that GH influences memory. So if we up regulate it, we improve memory. And this has been confirmed. The pathways even are being elucidated. Brain cells like all the other cells in the body have receptors for GH. The GH binds to the cells, and this leads to the cell’s production of IGF-1 and IGF-1 allows the cells to solidify a memory; and consolidate it. Downstream from this as well, it leads to the cell’s increased ability to produce IGF-2, which also leads to improve memory (hippocampus).
 
And research on GH receptors in the brain shows that GH up regulation by peptides optimizes neural plasticity.
 
Every cell in the body has the capability of making its own cortisol. In brain cells that make their own cortisol in response to stress from cortisone using the enzyme 11-beta-OH-dehydrogenase, GH inhibits that enzyme! And the coenzyme 6-hexose-dehydrogenase is affected by IGF-1. Hence, two ways of limiting the cell’s ability to produce too much cortisol.
 
But remember, as exercise is to increasing muscle strength and size, and as intermittent fasting is to increasing metabolic efficiency and health, an oxidative stress is also required for peptides to benefit neurons. A stressor is always required to challenge a tissue if it is to benefit from growth hormone up regulating.
 
The brain releases different forms of growth hormone released by somatotrophs in the brain to deal with different conditions. There are different forms of IGF-1 that are specific to different requirements of the genome to respond to different stressors. Peptides available to up regulate growth hormone in the brain simply tell the brain to up regulate the growth hormone. The brain decides which type is needed!
 
 
Diabetes
 
GLP-1’s and GLP-1 agonists... There are peptides being formulated from these that can be dosed weekly for diabetics without ever leading to hypoglycemic events.
 
GH in general increases glucose uptake, thereby increasing glucose tolerance, reducing insulin resistance.
 
But even more specifically, a peptide has been discovered in the mitochondria called MOTC-S that, in response to stress, goes to tell the nucleus that it needs certain transcription factors to produce certain needed proteins to change the cell’s situation in order to live/avoid apoptosis/utilize substrates better. This peptide can change and reverse diabetes in a pancreatic beta cell.
 
Muscle
 
GH can improve function in the muscle.
 
GH can improve muscle mass.
 
And the general theme of necessary oxidative stressor for peptides to work applies of course to the muscle. When it comes to muscle, that oxidative stress or is of course exercise. Any cell that is to benefit from peptides to optimize itself needs stressors.
 
My patients are starting to ask me more about peptides. When I describe how they will help their muscle, they ponder on then say, “I’m just going to do it the old-fashioned way and go to the gym.“ Absolutely they have to go to the gym! Whether they use peptides or not! The gym is the necessary stressor for peptides to work.
 
The cell must be constantly challenged if it is to constantly up regulated.
 
  1. Stress the muscle
(Challenge it with exercise)
More mitochondria utilization
More mitochondria
More/better use of fatty acids
(Oxidative phosphorylation)
  1. Muscle hypertrophies
 
Not:
Peptides given to muscle just sitting around causes hypertrophy? No.
 
Exactly how this happens at a biochemical level has been elucidated.
 
GH promotes the muscle cell mitochondrion oxidative capacity by significantly influencing the transcription of genes.
 
Basically, PGC 1 alpha is the power behind the up regulation of a cell - in any cell, including any muscle cell. The only way we can effectuate this up regulation of this amazing cellular machinery common to all muscle cells, PGC 1 alpha must be phosphorylated in the nucleus to do its job - and that’s usually done by AMPK. AMPK is up regulated when you fast. AMPK is up regulated when you exercise.
 
And what is PGC 1 alpha’s job? It up regulates T-Pam, a transcription factor for making mitochondria! More mitochondria is ALWAYS good. More factories for making more energy? Oh yeah. That’s good.
 
In summary, things like exercise or intermittent fasting lead to up regulation of AMPK, AMPK phosphorylates PGC 1 alpha, PGC 1 alpha up regulates T-Pam to make more mitochondria, obviously leading to the up regulation of cellular machinery efficiency.
 
The 1000 foot point of view summary of this: exercise and intermittent fasting lead to the biogenesis of mitochondria.
 
This in turn alters muscle type fibers to a type of muscle type fiber that uses more mitochondria. Ask any athlete the significance of this. This allows that muscle fiber to use more oxygen... To make more ATP. Bam.
 
Also, PGC 1 alpha has a role in increasing anti-oxidants. PGC 1 alpha must combine (in the nucleus) with nuclear factor 2 to make the antioxidant system work in the nucleus.
 
The electron transport chain (which generates our energy) is made of cytochromes... Cytochromes are made by the nucleus and cytochromes made by the mitochondria. The mitochondria tweaks it’s cytochrome production. The nucleus tweaks its own cytochrome production, separately. The interplay creates a balance depending on whether the cell wants to focus on function - energy usage - or energy production. This interplay is how the cell controls oxidative stress. GH up regulates both sides of this.
 
As muscle is essentially the largest endocrine organ in the body, this gives me a nice segue to...
 
Insulin Resistance
 
Decreasing resistance to insulin is at the root of reducing the morbidity of every disease group including diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. That’s pretty much everything folks. And up regulating GH does this.
 
Yes, up regulating GH in essentially every cell of the body leads to increased glucose uptake. This is one in the same as decreasing resistance to insulin.
 
The transcription of increasing Sellier mechanisms leading to increased glucose uptake are guided by up regulating GH.
 
I segued from muscle uses to decreasing insulin resistance. Let me explain. Muscle is indeed the largest endocrine organ in the body. That is, it contains the largest amount of amino acids. Thus, all the cells of the body can go to muscle to get amino acids when they need them. But this must be done by signaling. And this signaling is done by peptides called cytokines.
 
There are over 500 types of signaling cytokines and chemokines signaling cellular changes from the muscle. Muscle after all is pool of amino acids to the brain, the kidney, and the liver. And the cells of all of these tissues are going to go to the muscle to get amino acids when they are in demand - coordinated by a conversation that uses cytokines.
 
Thus, muscle must be constantly repleted of its amino acids. GH is key to promoting this.
 
GH is essential to these processes, both at the taking of amino acids from muscle, and at the requesting of amino acids from all of the bodies tissues.
 
Sarcopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nicely controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Liver
 
GH can improve function in the liver.
 
Kidneys
 
GH influences the podocytes, cells that line the kidney tubules.
 
Adipose tissue
 
GH can improve function in fat tissue.
 
GH can produce shifts in body composition.
 
Decrease in fat in general is healthier, yes.
 
Beige that is more healthy than white fat tissue. We want more beige because it has more mitochondria in it, and that is always good. Beige add a post tissue is more thermogenic... It’s more efficient. Remember, more mitochondria is always better. More power houses, factories in the cell.
 
GH it turns out converts white to beige adipose tissue. Bam.
 
Cardiovascular
 
GH can improve cardiovascular capacity. GH can improve exercise tolerance. GH can improve endurance.
 
GH, in its ability to influence IGF-1, stimulates nitric oxide synthesis, the critical substance of course for angiogenesis.
 
GH has an effect on homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, cystine levels.
 
GH can affect lipid metabolism to reduce cholesterol, the stickiest large molecule in the blood given blame for so much in the world of cardiac and cerebral vascular ischemic events.
 
Bone
 
GH can improve function in the bone. GH can improve bone density. Thus, GH is important in osteoporosis and maintaining bone integrity and function.
 
Osteopenia, a big problem in aging, can be nice to controlled with peptides that up regulate our bodies GH.
 
Sleep
 
GH can improve sleep. Stages of sleep. Sleep cycles. The most important release of growth hormone is at night. The first phase in the cycle of going to deep sleep, phase 4, is where the most GH is secreted by the brain.
 
With aging, we lose phase 4. So we lose much of our GH.
 
Understandably, GH, a proliferator, allows the body to repair best at night.
 
Immune system
 
GH is an up regulating agent. Immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own GH. As a result, they can up regulate more immune cells.
 
GH is also a signaling agent. Because immune cells, B and T cells, produce their own IGF-1 and GH, they can respond to and create their own hormones that function at both paracrine and endocrine levels.
 
GH can definitely improve the immune system. This is well documented because when there is a decrease in GH in the bloodstream, we see thymic medulla involution. And thymopoesis (the body‘s production of T cells) is shown to be lost. Also well documented, the administration of GH can restore the thymus to health in a mild regenerative capacity, or at least cap further decrease in its function - so at least protective.
 
Similarly, the up regulation of certain cytokines and interleukins has been documented by supplementing GH.
 
So if the immune system is up regulated, it has an auto regulatory, self perpetuating ability to continue that up regulating subsequently on its own. Clinically, these patients may not need much maintenance once up regulation is launched.
 
Regeneration (Stem Cells)
 
And one of the most exciting new uses of peptides and GH up regulation is with regeneration, specifically with stem cells.
 
GH optimizes stem cell health.
 
IGF-1 up regulates neurogenesis in the adult brain - well documented. Even small doses of it can trigger the differentiation of regenerative cells like stem cells and their progeny, the progenitor cells.
 
Over time, as we age, there is a well documented decrease an expression of IGF-1 necessary for neurogenesis in the brain, especially the hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is lost as we age. GH and IGF-1 can give this back.
 
Stem cells, the regenerative cells in our body, we now know are in all tissues. They have different names in different tissues, satellite cells in the muscle, pericytes along all endothelium, and so forth. But they are all stem cells and they are everywhere, ever ready for the main 3Rs, repair, rebuild, regenerate. Well, all stem cells have GH receptors, and they all have GHRH receptors. Turns out these receptors need to be stimulated for a stem cell to remain able to go into action at any time.
 
Stem cells must remain in a “quiescent” phase to be able to go into action.
 
Stem cells in “senescence”, a zombie like state any cell can get into in which it neither functions normally nor concedes to die, cannot be called into action. Any cell in senescence can’t continue its cell life cycle, halting after it stops doing any functions to help tissue in anyway, but short of death (apoptosis).
 
Inflammation leads to senescence. Senescent cells are cleared by stem cells, one of their many exciting functions being elucidated at this time. But a stem cell in senescence? No good.
 
We want our stem cells in quiescence in order for them to be able to function.
 
Turns out it’s the correct ratio of NAD+ to NADH that makes stem cells stay in the quiescent state! Up regulating GH systemically produces this correct NAD+ to NADH ratio.
 
Vasopressin
 
... Is a peptide.
 
Gonadotropin releasing factor
 
Is another peptide…
 
Oxytocin
 
Another peptide…
 
Cancer
 
You can attach a peptide that you know will attach to a tumor cell to a virus that oncologists know kill a tumor and, and thereby introduce the conjugated virus and peptide to a cell specifically enough to accurately kill cancer cells.
 
Weight loss
 
Probably the most common effect, desired and otherwise from the use of GHRP is weight loss. This is as a result of the up regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (of fat) produced by GH. This up regulates mitochondrial function and thus the production of ATP.
 
 
Physiology
 
And how is all of this increased efficiency, correlated with weight loss usually, consistent with a healthier state, you ask?
 
Better put, how does up regulating oxidative phosphorylation by using a better substrate, fat, actually lead to the increased transcription of more efficient and thus healthier cellular enzymes and machinery?

Conclusion

GH receptors are essentially everywhere, muscle, immune cells, kidney, pancreas, so not just the brain.
 
As such, GH can act as an up regulating hormone. And it can also act as a signaling agent.
 
So, as long as we are up regulating our body’s production of GH instead of supplementing it exogenously, there are limitless uses for this. And complete safety, in general. There’s no toxic, completely foreign feel to peptides because they are not really foreign to our cellular culture.
 
GH has an anabolic effect. It up regulates protein synthesis, it up regulates glucose uptake. Hence, cell growth, differentiation, ATP production. But perhaps most importantly above all, it gives the cell the most effective substrate for metabolism, fatty acids. Hence, probably the biggest use we hear for GHRP is weight loss.
 
In summary, if you can make a self more efficient by using a better substrate, fat, you improve metabolism, health, and longevity in general because you have improved the efficiency of the cell, thus optimizing its physiology.
 
Furthermore, in the most current literature, we are seeing a protective nature to many of these GH augmenting peptides. They actually protect our cells from stressors and disease every day before stress and disease happen.
 
In overview, peptides that up regulate the body‘s production of GH not only help with proliferation, differentiation, and hence regeneration, because they help with cellular metabolism at almost every little step, they are anti-aging.
 
Thus, GHRF and GHRH and any peptides that up regulate the bodies GH, at the end of the day, can lower drugs required for most of these groups. All of these peptides are those synergistic with other conventional care - drugs that have so many side effects.
 
Even hormone replacement (HRT) therapy which helps so many patients can be reduced by using peptides. Yes, peptides that up regulate GHR synergistic with HRT. This has even been well elucidated. The first step that converts cholesterol toward steroids is the conversion to pregnenalone.
 
My point... Bottom line, since peptides helps cellular efficiency at every metabolic step, they help return the body from a disease state to a homeostatic state in almost every capacity that you can imagine. And - some speculation here in theory still, but it’s generally accepted - because aging means that we have an over holding back by somatostatin, to help the aged cells which are still capable of doing everything a teenager can do, we can up regulate GH to return to a state of youth.
 
GHRP. Peptides that up regulate growth hormone.
 
GHRH. Hormones that up regulate GH.
 
Let’s learn all about these and fine-tune what we can do to help a six-year-old do with a 20-year-old can do.
 
Our capacity? Our pituitary could do what that of a 20-year-old could do until we turn 150 years of age.
 
We can turn around sarcopoenia and osteopenia - end products of unattended aging. We can turn them around. We can turn around aging. Protein is required. Let’s specify the type and make the correct type of peptide decisions to replenish.
 
Disease states in which you are losing protein? Give the protein back, and we can turn it around... With the correct peptides. To increase GH.
 
Or help the body make its own GH up regulating peptides. Get it the right type of amino acids. Improve amino acid uptake.
 
Mitochondriogenesis follows. Improved energy efficiency follows that. Reduced disease and or reduced aging follows that.
 
And again, the youthful every through our pulsing of GH that a teenager can do that we start losing in our 20s is something we can get back.
 
GHRH’s and GHRP’s can retrain somatotropes to pulse.
 
Let’s turn the machinery of aging around. Let’s turn the machinery of diseased tissue around. Let’s improve amino acid uptake. Let’s do this by up regulating GH. Let’s do this by using GH up regulating peptides.
 
And big general principle: stressors up regulate health. So caloric restriction is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen muscle. Exercise is a stress on the muscle, so that’s going to strengthen the muscle.
 
We can mimic what exercise and caloric restriction do using growth hormone enhancing peptides, yes. But we must also exercise and practice intermittent fasting so that the peptides that we are supplementing are helping a stressed muscle become stronger. Otherwise, a muscle just sitting there getting peptides is not going to be stressed and thus won’t get stronger.
 
In disease as well as in aging, what goes wrong is oxidative phosphorylation and the like - cellular machinery for making energy - what is called oxidative stress. We now know we can restore those pathways to youthful if the oxidative stress is functional like exercise and intermittent fasting by using peptides that up regulate GH which is anabolic. We now know we can regenerate those pathways with peptides that up regulate GH production if the oxidative stress has been severe enough to damage them as is the case with disease.
 
So if the answer to a problem of aging or disease is a return to normal physiology, let’s do it the way the body does it, using peptides natural to the body.
 

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for headaches caused by back trauma?
 

Rg3: A Brain Peptide

Introduction

Regenerative growth factor three is the third factor extracted from ginseng. Right.

Read on if you want to know why the Chinese have discovered that ginseng helps your brain.

 

Disclaimers

This is only for education. Do not self administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

 

Discussion

Mechanism of action

Rg3 up regulates neprilysin (NEP) gene expression, the enzyme catalyst for the degradation of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide; its accumulation leads to Alzheimer’s). By blocking the accumulation of nuclear factor Abeta in the brain, Rg3 reduces amyloid plaque.

Patients with MS or head or back trauma develop plaques that lead to headaches. This peptide reduces their headaches.

Rg3 also up regulates the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Administration

Nasal spray. Usually BID.

Usually done in combination with NAD, vitamin B 12, and. nicotinide riboside.

Add mucolax if it burns the nose.

Indications

Chronic stress, burn out, chronic headaches, stroke, HCV, alzheimer’s, head or back trauma.

Conclusion

Extensive human studies confirm safety using Rg3. Study after study, pediatrics, adults, no side effects; desired results including early return to work, early return to school.

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for headaches caused from head trauma?
 

Rg3: A Brain Peptide

Introduction

Regenerative growth factor three is the third factor extracted from ginseng. Right.

Read on if you want to know why the Chinese have discovered that ginseng helps your brain.

 

Disclaimers

This is only for education. Do not self administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

 

Discussion

Mechanism of action

Rg3 up regulates neprilysin (NEP) gene expression, the enzyme catalyst for the degradation of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide; its accumulation leads to Alzheimer’s). By blocking the accumulation of nuclear factor Abeta in the brain, Rg3 reduces amyloid plaque.

Patients with MS or head or back trauma develop plaques that lead to headaches. This peptide reduces their headaches.

Rg3 also up regulates the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Administration

Nasal spray. Usually BID.

Usually done in combination with NAD, vitamin B 12, and. nicotinide riboside.

Add mucolax if it burns the nose.

Indications

Chronic stress, burn out, chronic headaches, stroke, HCV, alzheimer’s, head or back trauma.

Conclusion

Extensive human studies confirm safety using Rg3. Study after study, pediatrics, adults, no side effects; desired results including early return to work, early return to school.

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for headaches caused by MS?
 

Rg3: A Brain Peptide

Introduction

Regenerative growth factor three is the third factor extracted from ginseng. Right.

Read on if you want to know why the Chinese have discovered that ginseng helps your brain.

 

Disclaimers

This is only for education. Do not self administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

 

Discussion

Mechanism of action

Rg3 up regulates neprilysin (NEP) gene expression, the enzyme catalyst for the degradation of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide; its accumulation leads to Alzheimer’s). By blocking the accumulation of nuclear factor Abeta in the brain, Rg3 reduces amyloid plaque.

Patients with MS or head or back trauma develop plaques that lead to headaches. This peptide reduces their headaches.

Rg3 also up regulates the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Administration

Nasal spray. Usually BID.

Usually done in combination with NAD, vitamin B 12, and. nicotinide riboside.

Add mucolax if it burns the nose.

Indications

Chronic stress, burn out, chronic headaches, stroke, HCV, alzheimer’s, head or back trauma.

Conclusion

Extensive human studies confirm safety using Rg3. Study after study, pediatrics, adults, no side effects; desired results including early return to work, early return to school.

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for chronic stress?
 

Rg3: A Brain Peptide

Introduction

Regenerative growth factor three is the third factor extracted from ginseng. Right.

Read on if you want to know why the Chinese have discovered that ginseng helps your brain.

 

Disclaimers

This is only for education. Do not self administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

 

Discussion

Mechanism of action

Rg3 up regulates neprilysin (NEP) gene expression, the enzyme catalyst for the degradation of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide; its accumulation leads to Alzheimer’s). By blocking the accumulation of nuclear factor Abeta in the brain, Rg3 reduces amyloid plaque.

Patients with MS or head or back trauma develop plaques that lead to headaches. This peptide reduces their headaches.

Rg3 also up regulates the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Administration

Nasal spray. Usually BID.

Usually done in combination with NAD, vitamin B 12, and. nicotinide riboside.

Add mucolax if it burns the nose.

Indications

Chronic stress, burn out, chronic headaches, stroke, HCV, alzheimer’s, head or back trauma.

Conclusion

Extensive human studies confirm safety using Rg3. Study after study, pediatrics, adults, no side effects; desired results including early return to work, early return to school.

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for burn out?
 

Rg3: A Brain Peptide

Introduction

Regenerative growth factor three is the third factor extracted from ginseng. Right.

Read on if you want to know why the Chinese have discovered that ginseng helps your brain.

 

Disclaimers

This is only for education. Do not self administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

 

Discussion

Mechanism of action

Rg3 up regulates neprilysin (NEP) gene expression, the enzyme catalyst for the degradation of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide; its accumulation leads to Alzheimer’s). By blocking the accumulation of nuclear factor Abeta in the brain, Rg3 reduces amyloid plaque.

Patients with MS or head or back trauma develop plaques that lead to headaches. This peptide reduces their headaches.

Rg3 also up regulates the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Administration

Nasal spray. Usually BID.

Usually done in combination with NAD, vitamin B 12, and. nicotinide riboside.

Add mucolax if it burns the nose.

Indications

Chronic stress, burn out, chronic headaches, stroke, HCV, alzheimer’s, head or back trauma.

Conclusion

Extensive human studies confirm safety using Rg3. Study after study, pediatrics, adults, no side effects; desired results including early return to work, early return to school.

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for chronic headaches?
 

Rg3: A Brain Peptide

Introduction

Regenerative growth factor three is the third factor extracted from ginseng. Right.

Read on if you want to know why the Chinese have discovered that ginseng helps your brain.

 

Disclaimers

This is only for education. Do not self administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

 

Discussion

Mechanism of action

Rg3 up regulates neprilysin (NEP) gene expression, the enzyme catalyst for the degradation of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide; its accumulation leads to Alzheimer’s). By blocking the accumulation of nuclear factor Abeta in the brain, Rg3 reduces amyloid plaque.

Patients with MS or head or back trauma develop plaques that lead to headaches. This peptide reduces their headaches.

Rg3 also up regulates the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Administration

Nasal spray. Usually BID.

Usually done in combination with NAD, vitamin B 12, and. nicotinide riboside.

Add mucolax if it burns the nose.

Indications

Chronic stress, burn out, chronic headaches, stroke, HCV, alzheimer’s, head or back trauma.

Conclusion

Extensive human studies confirm safety using Rg3. Study after study, pediatrics, adults, no side effects; desired results including early return to work, early return to school.

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for stroke?
 

Rg3: A Brain Peptide

Introduction

Regenerative growth factor three is the third factor extracted from ginseng. Right.

Read on if you want to know why the Chinese have discovered that ginseng helps your brain.

 

Disclaimers

This is only for education. Do not self administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

 

Discussion

Mechanism of action

Rg3 up regulates neprilysin (NEP) gene expression, the enzyme catalyst for the degradation of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide; its accumulation leads to Alzheimer’s). By blocking the accumulation of nuclear factor Abeta in the brain, Rg3 reduces amyloid plaque.

Patients with MS or head or back trauma develop plaques that lead to headaches. This peptide reduces their headaches.

Rg3 also up regulates the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Administration

Nasal spray. Usually BID.

Usually done in combination with NAD, vitamin B 12, and. nicotinide riboside.

Add mucolax if it burns the nose.

Indications

Chronic stress, burn out, chronic headaches, stroke, HCV, alzheimer’s, head or back trauma.

Conclusion

Extensive human studies confirm safety using Rg3. Study after study, pediatrics, adults, no side effects; desired results including early return to work, early return to school.

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for HCV?
 

Rg3: A Brain Peptide

Introduction

Regenerative growth factor three is the third factor extracted from ginseng. Right.

Read on if you want to know why the Chinese have discovered that ginseng helps your brain.

 

Disclaimers

This is only for education. Do not self administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

 

Discussion

Mechanism of action

Rg3 up regulates neprilysin (NEP) gene expression, the enzyme catalyst for the degradation of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide; its accumulation leads to Alzheimer’s). By blocking the accumulation of nuclear factor Abeta in the brain, Rg3 reduces amyloid plaque.

Patients with MS or head or back trauma develop plaques that lead to headaches. This peptide reduces their headaches.

Rg3 also up regulates the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Administration

Nasal spray. Usually BID.

Usually done in combination with NAD, vitamin B 12, and. nicotinide riboside.

Add mucolax if it burns the nose.

Indications

Chronic stress, burn out, chronic headaches, stroke, HCV, alzheimer’s, head or back trauma.

Conclusion

Extensive human studies confirm safety using Rg3. Study after study, pediatrics, adults, no side effects; desired results including early return to work, early return to school.

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I help my memory?
 

Rg3: A Brain Peptide

Introduction

Regenerative growth factor three is the third factor extracted from ginseng. Right.

Read on if you want to know why the Chinese have discovered that ginseng helps your brain.

 

Disclaimers

This is only for education. Do not self administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

 

Discussion

Mechanism of action

Rg3 up regulates neprilysin (NEP) gene expression, the enzyme catalyst for the degradation of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide; its accumulation leads to Alzheimer’s). By blocking the accumulation of nuclear factor Abeta in the brain, Rg3 reduces amyloid plaque.

Patients with MS or head or back trauma develop plaques that lead to headaches. This peptide reduces their headaches.

Rg3 also up regulates the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Administration

Nasal spray. Usually BID.

Usually done in combination with NAD, vitamin B 12, and. nicotinide riboside.

Add mucolax if it burns the nose.

Indications

Chronic stress, burn out, chronic headaches, stroke, HCV, alzheimer’s, head or back trauma.

Conclusion

Extensive human studies confirm safety using Rg3. Study after study, pediatrics, adults, no side effects; desired results including early return to work, early return to school.

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What ginseng improves memory?
 

Rg3: A Brain Peptide

Introduction

Regenerative growth factor three is the third factor extracted from ginseng. Right.

Read on if you want to know why the Chinese have discovered that ginseng helps your brain.

 

Disclaimers

This is only for education. Do not self administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

 

Discussion

Mechanism of action

Rg3 up regulates neprilysin (NEP) gene expression, the enzyme catalyst for the degradation of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide; its accumulation leads to Alzheimer’s). By blocking the accumulation of nuclear factor Abeta in the brain, Rg3 reduces amyloid plaque.

Patients with MS or head or back trauma develop plaques that lead to headaches. This peptide reduces their headaches.

Rg3 also up regulates the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Administration

Nasal spray. Usually BID.

Usually done in combination with NAD, vitamin B 12, and. nicotinide riboside.

Add mucolax if it burns the nose.

Indications

Chronic stress, burn out, chronic headaches, stroke, HCV, alzheimer’s, head or back trauma.

Conclusion

Extensive human studies confirm safety using Rg3. Study after study, pediatrics, adults, no side effects; desired results including early return to work, early return to school.

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I reduce age related memory impairment?
 

Rg3: A Brain Peptide

Introduction

Regenerative growth factor three is the third factor extracted from ginseng. Right.

Read on if you want to know why the Chinese have discovered that ginseng helps your brain.

 

Disclaimers

This is only for education. Do not self administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

 

Discussion

Mechanism of action

Rg3 up regulates neprilysin (NEP) gene expression, the enzyme catalyst for the degradation of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide; its accumulation leads to Alzheimer’s). By blocking the accumulation of nuclear factor Abeta in the brain, Rg3 reduces amyloid plaque.

Patients with MS or head or back trauma develop plaques that lead to headaches. This peptide reduces their headaches.

Rg3 also up regulates the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Administration

Nasal spray. Usually BID.

Usually done in combination with NAD, vitamin B 12, and. nicotinide riboside.

Add mucolax if it burns the nose.

Indications

Chronic stress, burn out, chronic headaches, stroke, HCV, alzheimer’s, head or back trauma.

Conclusion

Extensive human studies confirm safety using Rg3. Study after study, pediatrics, adults, no side effects; desired results including early return to work, early return to school.

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I reduce age related mental disorder?
 

Rg3: A Brain Peptide

Introduction

Regenerative growth factor three is the third factor extracted from ginseng. Right.

Read on if you want to know why the Chinese have discovered that ginseng helps your brain.

 

Disclaimers

This is only for education. Do not self administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

 

Discussion

Mechanism of action

Rg3 up regulates neprilysin (NEP) gene expression, the enzyme catalyst for the degradation of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide; its accumulation leads to Alzheimer’s). By blocking the accumulation of nuclear factor Abeta in the brain, Rg3 reduces amyloid plaque.

Patients with MS or head or back trauma develop plaques that lead to headaches. This peptide reduces their headaches.

Rg3 also up regulates the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Administration

Nasal spray. Usually BID.

Usually done in combination with NAD, vitamin B 12, and. nicotinide riboside.

Add mucolax if it burns the nose.

Indications

Chronic stress, burn out, chronic headaches, stroke, HCV, alzheimer’s, head or back trauma.

Conclusion

Extensive human studies confirm safety using Rg3. Study after study, pediatrics, adults, no side effects; desired results including early return to work, early return to school.

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I reduce my risk for Alzheimer's disease?
 

Rg3: A Brain Peptide

Introduction

Regenerative growth factor three is the third factor extracted from ginseng. Right.

Read on if you want to know why the Chinese have discovered that ginseng helps your brain.

 

Disclaimers

This is only for education. Do not self administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

 

Discussion

Mechanism of action

Rg3 up regulates neprilysin (NEP) gene expression, the enzyme catalyst for the degradation of Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide; its accumulation leads to Alzheimer’s). By blocking the accumulation of nuclear factor Abeta in the brain, Rg3 reduces amyloid plaque.

Patients with MS or head or back trauma develop plaques that lead to headaches. This peptide reduces their headaches.

Rg3 also up regulates the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Administration

Nasal spray. Usually BID.

Usually done in combination with NAD, vitamin B 12, and. nicotinide riboside.

Add mucolax if it burns the nose.

Indications

Chronic stress, burn out, chronic headaches, stroke, HCV, alzheimer’s, head or back trauma.

Conclusion

Extensive human studies confirm safety using Rg3. Study after study, pediatrics, adults, no side effects; desired results including early return to work, early return to school.

Stay well,

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for autism?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can be done Aspergers?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for vascular dementia?<
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for traumatic brain injury (TBI)?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for ADHD?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I improve athletic performance?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I see where the puck is better playing hockey?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
How can I get that extra edge as an executive?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can be done for dementia?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can be done for Alzheimer's patients?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for my child's behavior?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for my child's motor control?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for my child's attention?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for my child's memory?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorder, 1° or 2°. So, MS, Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, autism, and the like for primary disorders. And, again, most non-neural disorders produce a secondary neurodegenerative component.

Aging of course produces neurodegeneration, so there are benefits there. Studies on ALL confirmed improved life expectancy. Administration It can cross the blood brain barrier, so can give it SQ. It can be given IV - push or drip, IM.

Four weeks on, four weeks off. Or, twice a year dosing. Twice a year dosing is for anti-aging (anti-neurodegenerative). May be used with IGF-1, CJC, ipamorelin, TA-1. Risk This peptide is completely well tolerated.

At this point in the presentation of anything big Pharma has available for dementia today, you would read a laundry list of serious side effects including reduced immune function, risk of infection, much of these lethal.

Conclusion

There are extensive human studies that have confirmed great safety using Cerebrolysin. Study after study, children, adults, no side effects; great results.

DAVID ALLINGHAM, M.D., MS

 
What can I do for ocular migraine?
 

Cerebrolysin

Introduction

The ins and outs of this peptide are reviewed. It is used in neurodegenerative situations.

Disclaimers

The discussion below is purely for the purposes of education. Do not self-administer peptides. Get peptide care only from physicians that have worked extensively with them.

Discussion

Neurodegenerative disorders stem from natural aging as well as from just about anything that causes any other diseases in the body (any disease in the body is going to have an impact on the brain), plus of course from brain degenerative disorders - autism, depression, multiple sclerosis, others.

The end product of neurodegenerative disorders is dementia. But often, there is no overt dementia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disorder well underway. The peptide Cerebrolysin is proving helpful to people with neurodegenerative disorders.

Studies reviewing its often use ability to return to work as a primary marker of efficacy. Mechanism of action Cerebrolysin increases synaptic density by increasing dendrites. Thus, you are increasing the ability to make connections in the brain.

It protects neurons from oxidative stress, acidosis, and glutamate toxicity. Glutamate conversion to GABA occurs in microglia when microglia are functional (microglia are the janitors of the brain).

This does not occur when microglia are in senescent phase. So, glutamate builds up. Thus, Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid plaque, improving metabolism. Uses Peer reviewed scientific studies confirm better return to work rates in just about any neurodegenerative disorde